Major Hormones: Origin, Target, Function

   
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HORMONE GLAND ORIGIN TARGET TISSUE FUNCTION
Adrenocorticotropic Pituitary gland (anterior) Adrenal cortex Triggers secretion of hydrocortisone from the adrenal gland
Growth hormone Pituitary gland (anterior) Throughout body Stimulates growth and development
Follicle-stimulating hormone Pituitary gland (anterior) Sex glands Stimulates female egg maturation and male sperm production
Luteinizing hormone Pituitary gland (anterior) Sex glands Stimulates female ovulation and male secretion of testosterone
Prolactin Pituitary gland (anterior) Mammary glands Stimulates milk production in the breasts after childbirth
Thyroid-stimulating hormone Pituitary gland (anterior) Thyroid gland Triggers secretion of thyroid hormones
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone Pituitary gland (anterior) Melanin-producing cells Controls skin pigmentation
Antidiuretic hormone Pituitary gland (posterior) Kidneys Regulates water retention and blood pressure
Oxytocin Pituitary gland (posterior) Uterus

Mammary glands

Triggers contraction of the uterus during labor
Stimulates milk letdown for breast-feeding after childbirth
Melatonin Pineal gland Unclear, although possible target sites are pigment cells and sex organs May affect skin pigmentation; may regulate biorhythms (awake/sleep patterns) and prevent jet lag
Calcitonin Thyroid gland Bones Controls the level of calcium in the blood by depositing it in the bones
Thyroid hormone Thyroid gland Throughout body Increases the body’s metabolic rate; promotes normal growth and development
Parathyroid hormone Parathyroid glands Bones, intestines, and kidneys Regulates calcium level in blood
Thymosin Thymus White blood cells Promotes the growth and development of white blood cells, helping the body fight infection
Aldosterone Adrenal gland Kidneys Regulates sodium and potassium levels in the blood to control blood pressure
Hydrocortisone Adrenal gland Throughout body Plays key role in stress response; increases blood glucose levels and mobilizes fat stores; reduces inflammatation
Epinephrine Adrenal gland Muscles and blood vessels Increases blood pressure, heart and metabolic rate, and blood sugar levels; dilates blood vessels. Also released during exercise
Norepinephrine Adrenal gland Muscles and blood vessels Increases blood pressure and heart rate; constricts blood vessels
Glucagon Pancreas Liver Stimulates the breakdown of glycogen (stored carbohydrate) into glucose (blood sugar); regulates glucose blood level
Insulin Pancreas Throughout body Regulates blood glucose levels; increases storage of glycogen; facilitates glucose intake by body cells
Estrogen Ovaries Female reproductive system Causes sexual development and growth; maintains proper functioning of female reproductive system
Progesterone Ovaries Mammary glands
Uterus
Prepares uterus for pregnancy
Testosterone Testes Throughout body Causes sexual development and growth spurt; maintains proper functioning of male reproductive system
Erythropoietin Kidney Bone Marrow Produces red blood cells



 

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St. Rosemary Educational Institution. "Major Hormones: Origin, Target, Function." http://schoolworkhelper.net/. St. Rosemary Educational Institution, Last Update: 2014. Web. Retrieved on: Friday 25th April 2014. http://schoolworkhelper.net/major-hormones-origin-target-function/.

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