HORMONEGLAND ORIGINTARGET TISSUEFUNCTION
AdrenocorticotropicPituitary gland (anterior)Adrenal cortexTriggers secretion of hydrocortisone from the adrenal gland
Growth hormonePituitary gland (anterior)Throughout bodyStimulates growth and development
Follicle-stimulating hormonePituitary gland (anterior)Sex glandsStimulates female egg maturation and male sperm production
Luteinizing hormonePituitary gland (anterior)Sex glandsStimulates female ovulation and male secretion of testosterone
ProlactinPituitary gland (anterior)Mammary glandsStimulates milk production in the breasts after childbirth
Thyroid-stimulating hormonePituitary gland (anterior)Thyroid glandTriggers secretion of thyroid hormones
Melanocyte-stimulating hormonePituitary gland (anterior)Melanin-producing cellsControls skin pigmentation
Antidiuretic hormonePituitary gland (posterior)KidneysRegulates water retention and blood pressure
OxytocinPituitary gland (posterior)Uterus

Mammary glands

Triggers contraction of the uterus during labor
Stimulates milk letdown for breast-feeding after childbirth
MelatoninPineal glandUnclear, although possible target sites are pigment cells and sex organsMay affect skin pigmentation; may regulate biorhythms (awake/sleep patterns) and prevent jet lag
CalcitoninThyroid glandBonesControls the level of calcium in the blood by depositing it in the bones
Thyroid hormoneThyroid glandThroughout bodyIncreases the body’s metabolic rate; promotes normal growth and development
Parathyroid hormoneParathyroid glandsBones, intestines, and kidneysRegulates calcium level in blood
ThymosinThymusWhite blood cellsPromotes the growth and development of white blood cells, helping the body fight infection
AldosteroneAdrenal glandKidneysRegulates sodium and potassium levels in the blood to control blood pressure
HydrocortisoneAdrenal glandThroughout bodyPlays key role in stress response; increases blood glucose levels and mobilizes fat stores; reduces inflammatation
EpinephrineAdrenal glandMuscles and blood vesselsIncreases blood pressure, heart and metabolic rate, and blood sugar levels; dilates blood vessels. Also released during exercise
NorepinephrineAdrenal glandMuscles and blood vesselsIncreases blood pressure and heart rate; constricts blood vessels
GlucagonPancreasLiverStimulates the breakdown of glycogen (stored carbohydrate) into glucose (blood sugar); regulates glucose blood level
InsulinPancreasThroughout bodyRegulates blood glucose levels; increases storage of glycogen; facilitates glucose intake by body cells
EstrogenOvariesFemale reproductive systemCauses sexual development and growth; maintains proper functioning of female reproductive system
ProgesteroneOvariesMammary glands
Uterus
Prepares uterus for pregnancy
TestosteroneTestesThroughout bodyCauses sexual development and growth spurt; maintains proper functioning of male reproductive system
ErythropoietinKidneyBone MarrowProduces red blood cells





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