Mass:  mass is the amount of material in an object.  Mass is measured with a balance, usually in grams or kilograms.

Volume: volume is the amount of space occupied by an object. Volume is measured using a graduated cylinder or  is determined by calculation using the dimensions of the object.   Volume is measured  in  cm3, m3, mL and L.

Block

If the object is a square or rectangular block, use the formula   V = L x W x H to calculate volume.

Cylinder

If the object is cylindrical, use formula on the right to calculate volume.volume formula cylinder Mass, Volume, Density: Summary & Definitions

Liquid

If the substance is a liquid, just measure its volume with a graduated cylinder

For irregular-shaped objects:

Use the method known as displacement.  Fill a graduated cylinder or a container with a scale with a set amount of water.  Record the reading ( ie 50 mL).  Carefully add the irregular-shaped object to the cylinder.  Record the new reading ( ie 53 mL) and subtract that from the reading of the water only. The volume of the irregular-shaped object must be 3 mL.

Density:  Density is a mass to volume ratio. Density can be used to identify a substance because every pure density formula Mass, Volume, Density: Summary & Definitions substance has a unique density value. Objects with smaller densities will float in liquids that have greater densities.

Calculating Density:  Use the following formula:

Density Chart for Common Substances

SUBSTANCE

STATE

AT

200C

DENSITY

AT

200C

( g/cm3)

gold

solid

19.32

Lead

solid

11.35

silver

solid

10.5

copper

solid

8.93

nickel

solid

8.9

iron

solid

7.88

aluminium

solid

2.7

glass

solid

2.7

rubber

solid

1.2

oak(wood)

solid

0.7 -0.9

pine(wood)

solid

0.4 -0.5

Styrofoam

solid

0.005

mercury

liquid

13.6

glycerine

liquid

1. 26

Sea water

     liquid

1.01

water

     liquid

1

 acetone

     liquid

0.791

Methyl alcohol

     liquid

0.71

Ethyl alcohol

     liquid

0.79

chlorine

gas

0.0032

Carbon dioxide

gas

0.002

air

gas

0.0013

ammonia

gas

0.0003

helium

gas

0.0002

hydrogen

gas

0.0001



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