• Should provide a summary of your essay
  • Consider writing it last—once you have a better idea of what your body paragraphs discuss
  • Avoid general statements/generalizations. Stick to topic and text only.
  • Thesis:
    • Summary of your arguments
    • 1 sentence per argument
    • Each statement should answer how/why and consequence
    • You can begin your thesis with “this paper will argue”
    • Last three statements of introductory paragraph

Body Paragraphs

  • 3 body paragraphs
  • Topic sentence: States the argument of the paragraph answering how/why and consequences
  • You should have three supporting statements
    • Each supporting statement should be followed by analysis
    • Analysis: Explaining why your supporting statement is significant and how it proves your argument
  • Avoid plot summary
  • Concluding sentence
    • Last sentence in paragraph
    • Must make direct connection to next argument (transition)
    • Do not summarize


  • Choose relevant quote
  • No more than 2 in a paragraph
  • You can choose which supporting statements should have a quote
  • Quotes shouldn’t be longer than 5 lines
  • Must cite according to MLA


  • “________/________/________.” (Act, Scene, Lines)
    • Act: Must be upper case roman numerals
    • Scene: Must be lower case roman numerals
    • Use “/“ to indicate a line change
    • 1: I, i
    • 2: II, ii
    • 3: III, iii
    • 4: IV, iv
    • V, v
    • 6: VI, vi
    • 7: VII, vii
  • Literary texts: (Author page#)
    • You have to put the author’s name in the citation every time
  • Embedded Citations
    • Quotes longer than 3 lines must be embedded (indent on both sides and quote must be single spaced)
    • (Author page#) goes on bottom of quote
  • Secondary sources: Same way to cite, except (Author year) instead of (Author page#)


  • Do not summarize your points
  • You may re-state your thesis in different words at the beginning
  • Must discuss further implications
    • Connect to other ideas in the text
    • What is the author’s message?
    • What is he/she trying to convey/teach to the audience?
    • Only place you can generalize

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