Lab Explained: Effects of Arm Muscle on Grip Strength

Introduction During a grip motion, the skeletal muscles in the arm and hand are used to generate and maintain the grip (Schoenfeld, 2012). Figure 1 shows the muscles, including the deltoids, triceps, biceps, and palmar muscles, that are involved in controlling movement and strength in the hand. Motor functions are controlled directly by the CNS…

Lab Answers: How Does Light Intensity Affect the Rate of Photosynthesis

Rationale Photosynthesis represented by the equation 6H2O + 6CO2 → C6H12O6 + 6O2 is one of the most crucial chemical reactions on earth as it produces O2 molecules– a gas vital to the survival of many organisms (Vidyasagar, 2018) This process takes place during the light dependent phase of photosynthesis and is indicated by the…

John Snow: Contributions to Society & Modern Epidemiology

John Snow, who was a practicing obstetrician in London during the Victorian era speculated that cholera, (originated from a contaminated water supply pump on Broad Street. Mayo Clinic (2017) has reported that “cholera is a bacterial disease usually spread through contaminated water. Cholera causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. Left untreated, cholera can be fatal in…

Hemophilia: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prognosis, Treatment

Introduction Hemophilia is a rare inherited genetic disorder that affects only one in every 10,000-40,000 people, depending on the type (Cimino, 2018).  The disorder has two types, Hemophilia A, and Hemophilia B.  Hemophilia A is a deficiency of growth factor VIII, and Hemophilia B is a deficiency of growth factor IX.  Both growth factors are…

Lab Explained: Effect of Salinity on Seed Germination

Research Question How does salinity affect the seed germination of Solanum lycopersicum? Introduction Relevance to Real world Covering 14% of Australia and home to over two million people, the Murray Darling Basin is Australia’s largest and most iconic river systems (figure 1) (McCormick, 2015). As over one third of Australia’s food supply is produced by…

Essay: Embryonic DNA Reconfiguration via CRISPR

Just weeks ago on September 28th, Japan’s governmental health and science ministries officially drafted national guidelines on human gene-editing and manipulation experiments, particularly within embryos (Cyranoski, 2018). Before then, Japan’s stance on genetic experiments had remained neutral. Now it is joining an increasing list of countries who support this genetic innovation.             One of the…

Enzyme Reactions: Discussion and Results

Table 1. Solution concentrations, volumes and observations for Experiment 1: Observing the enzyme reaction. Test Tube dH20 Potato Extract Catechol Observations 1 5 ml + 500μl —– 500μL Solution turned milky-white to clear. (High substrate) 2 5 ml 500μl 500μl Solution turned yellowish-brown. (High substrate) 3 5 ml + 500μl 500μl —– Solution is clear,…

Essay: Are Genetic Privacy Laws Necessary?

Genetic Privacy laws exists to prevent the abuse of genetic information. It is understood that these laws were created specifically to prohibit health insurance companies, employers and housing agencies from using genetic data to discriminate against citizens.  Genetic discrimination can be described as the unfair treatment of individuals by employers/insurance companies based on gene mutations…

Lab Report: The impacts of salinity on modern agriculture

1.0 Background: A breakthrough scientific experiment conducted by ‘Carnegie Science’ found that soil salinity considerably affects the growth rate in plants.  The experiment found how plants create Abscisic Acid as a stress hormone when the endodermis is exposed to drought or saline environments. “The endodermis also acts as a guard, with Abscisic Acid, to prevent…

Vitro meat, Hydroponics and Xerophytic adaptations

As the population grows at an exponential rate, feeding the world’s people is becoming an increasingly important field of scientific concern. Projections predict that population will grow more than 2 billion by 2050. This rapid growth cannot be sustained in definitely and will be either at the expense of a lower lifestyle quality or dramatically…

What is Cloning? Risks and Benefits

Cloning, a reproductive process resulting in two or more identical copies of organisms is a relatively new field of inquiry, making genetically identical organisms artificially.  Within the world of science there are two categories of cloning, natural cloning such as identical twins and artificial cloning which is a clone produced by artificial means.  There are…

Lab Explained: Carbon Dioxide Production by Yeasts under Different Temperatures

Problem: Yeasts undergo aerobic cell respiration if there is sufficient oxygen and releases carbon dioxide as a waste product. Yeasts, like any other cells, have an optimum temperature at which they work most efficiently, including the process of cell respiration. This experiment aims to discover the relation between temperature and the carbon dioxide yield of…