Protein Structures: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary

Proteins are the largest and most varied class of biological molecules, and they show the greatest variety of structures.  Many have intricate three-dimensional folding patterns that result in a compact form, but others do not fold up at all (“natively unstructured proteins”) and exist in random conformations. The function of proteins depends on their structure,…

Conservation Biology: Extinction, Habitat Loss, Invasive Species, Overexploitation

SPECIES EXTINCTION Species can become extinct: Locally: A species is no longer found in an area it once inhabited but is still found elsewhere in the world. Ecologically: Occurs when so few members of a species are left they no longer play its ecological role. Globally (biologically): Species is no longer found on the earth.…

Evolution: Genetic Drift, Gene Flow, Mutations, Random Change

Random change Key factors that can cause evolution: –Small populations are more variable to changes in allele frequencies -non-random mating opportunities result in only those “preferred” traits being passed onto future populations –new alleles may be created when mutations occur (changes the frequencies of new and original alleles) -migration causes changes in the relative abundance…

Incomplete Dominance or Codominance

Incomplete Dominance – there is an interaction between 2 alleles in the homozygous form – alleles are semi – or incompletely dominant and act together to yield an intermediate heterozygote – usually phenotypically between the two homozygote Codominance – when definite product or substance controlled by each allele is identified ex. of incomplete dominance: Andalusian…

Respiratory Disorders: Asthma, Bronchitis, Emphysema, Cystic Fibrosis

Asthma – results in contraction of smooth muscle that surrounds airways – makes breathing difficult – allergic reaction – treat with bronchodilators – causes airways to dilate (increase in diameter) Bronchitis – inflammation of bronchial lining + overproduction of mucous and frequent coughing – related to smoking and other irritants (air pollution etc) – increased…

Isomers: Structure and Function

In chemistry, isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. The word is derived from the Greek ισομερης, isomerès; isos = “equal”, méros = “part”. There are many different classes of isomers, like stereoisomers, enantiomers, geometrical isomers (see chart below). Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties, unless they also have…