Classification Level: Kingdom

The table below lists the basic general characteristics that are used to differentiate between the different kingdoms. Criteria Kingdom Animals Plants Fungi Protists Archaebacteria Eubacteria Type of cells Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Prokaryotic Prokaryotic Cell wall None Yes (cellulose) Yes (chitin) None Yes (peptidoglycan) Yes Cell organization Multicellular Multicellular Multicellular Single celled Single celled Single…

Organs of the Digestive Tract

Liver – produces bile -bile emulsifies fats in the small intestine; increases surface area of fat particles Gall Bladder – stores bile between meals – releases bile when food moves into the small intestine Pancreas – manufactures and releases bicarbonate to neutralize acid coming out of the stomach – basic environment inactivates pepsin – releases…

Blood: Structure, Function, Components

Components: i) plasma ii) erythrocytes (red blood cells) iii) leukocytes (white blood cells) iv) platelets Plasma: o    55% of blood volume and is 90% water o    Contains dissolved materials which are being transported: o    proteins (fibrinogen), hormones, nutrients, waste products, gases Erythrocytes: o    Function: > to carry oxygen o    Structure: >  no nucleus, cytoplasm contains…

CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Energy – needed for:   – movement – synthesis of complex compounds – active transport Food – provides energy needed by cells – broken down > heat (body heat, excess removed) chemical storage form Cellular Respiration – is the process by which chemical energy stored in food (usually glucose, but may be protein and lipids is…

Cell Reactions and Energy

Cells must perform thousands of different chemical reactions in order to survive.  These reactions are crucial to providing cells with energy. Endergonic reactions: -“energy in” require energy in order to proceed – biological endergonic reactions produce molecules that store energy (ex. Glucose) – Ex. Photosynthesis Exergonic reatctions: – “energy out” release energy – biological exergonic…

Mitosis and the Cell Cycle

Genetic continuity is the transmission of the hereditary material through cell division. The Cell Cycle –      cells do not divide continuously –      in cells capable of dividing, the period between cell divisions is called interphase –      cells spend most of their time in interphase because this is the phase where they perform their functions (obtaining…

PROTEINS

Proteins in the human body have a wide range of functions which include: Hormones (insulin, testosterone), Muscle Fibers (actin, muasin), Carrier Protein (Oxygen carrying hemoglobin), Structure/ Support (nails/ hair), Enzymes (biological catalyst), Membrane Transport (Na/ K pump), Cell-to-Cell Recognition, Antibodies. Structure Proteins are polymers made up of amino acid subunits bonded together by peptide bonds.…