CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Energy – needed for:   – movement – synthesis of complex compounds – active transport Food – provides energy needed by cells – broken down > heat (body heat, excess removed) chemical storage form Cellular Respiration – is the process by which chemical energy stored in food (usually glucose, but may be protein and lipids is…

Cell Reactions and Energy

Cells must perform thousands of different chemical reactions in order to survive.  These reactions are crucial to providing cells with energy. Endergonic reactions: -“energy in” require energy in order to proceed – biological endergonic reactions produce molecules that store energy (ex. Glucose) – Ex. Photosynthesis Exergonic reatctions: – “energy out” release energy – biological exergonic…

Mitosis and the Cell Cycle

Genetic continuity is the transmission of the hereditary material through cell division. The Cell Cycle –      cells do not divide continuously –      in cells capable of dividing, the period between cell divisions is called interphase –      cells spend most of their time in interphase because this is the phase where they perform their functions (obtaining…

PROTEINS

Proteins in the human body have a wide range of functions which include: Hormones (insulin, testosterone), Muscle Fibers (actin, muasin), Carrier Protein (Oxygen carrying hemoglobin), Structure/ Support (nails/ hair), Enzymes (biological catalyst), Membrane Transport (Na/ K pump), Cell-to-Cell Recognition, Antibodies. Structure Proteins are polymers made up of amino acid subunits bonded together by peptide bonds.…

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

Biological molecules are macromolecules, which basically means they are polymers composed on small repeating units that have been covalently bonded together.  The exception to this is a type of lipid called triacyleglycerides or phospholipids which are relatively large molecules composed of smaller molecules bonded together. Subunits are chemically liked together in the cell by a…

Allergic Reactions & Allergies: Causes & Treatment

Allergy is a disorder of the immune system often also referred to as atopy. Allergic reactions occur to normally harmless environmental substances known as allergens; these reactions are acquired, predictable and rapid. Mind allergies can range from hay fever which causes runny nose and itchy eyes, to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions and potentially death. Allergies are…

THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM

There are many organs and structures that make up the Digestive system and these organs or parts have key functions or roles to play which could include one or more of these: DIGESTION – mechanically or chemically breaking macromolecules to smaller units Mechanical: large food molecules are shredded, torn and ground; this helps  to increase…