Community Ecology: Predation, Mimicry, Competition

Community: A group of species that occupy a given area, interacting either directly or indirectly Predation Consumption of one organism by another organism Predator-prey population oscillations Predators and prey are agents of natural selection for each other defense or attack strategies camouflage aposematic colouration Mimicry Batesian: One species is harmful the other is non-harmful Non-harmful…

The Inheritance of Difference: Eukaryotes & Prokaryotes

Inheritance of Different in Prokaryotes Mutations arise, move from donors to recipients, incorporated to recipients through recombination Transposition: some genes are mobile and can be transferred to another site, and then another host Transformation: the conversion of the heredity type of a cell by the uptake of DNA released by the breakdown of another cell…

Energy Movement in Ecosystems: Trophic & Energy Pyramid

Organisms can be classified into trophic (feeding) levels depending on how they get their energy. Organisms that get their energy from nonliving sources (sun, organic matter) are called autotrophs (producers) and make up the 1st trophic level. Organisms that get their energy from other living things are called heterotrophs (consumers). Heterotrophs that eat autotrophs make…

Evolution: Synapomorphies & Cladogram

Divergent and Convergent Pathways Once a new species forms, its evolutionary pathway may diverge from the original species. Disruptive selection continues long after speciation has occurred resulting in divergent evolution. Divergent evolution: occurs when two or more species evolve increasingly different traits, resulting from differing selective pressures or genetic drift. Species with significantly different morphological…

Models of Human Nature and Therapeutic Change

Biological (Medical) Model The mind’s activity depends on the brain whose composition is genetically determined Still acknowledge influences of environment and learning Genetic influences on anxiety and depression Brain structure different in individuals with schizophrenia- process information differently Therapy: Pharmacological treatments (medication) Behavioural Model Focuses on what people do rather than on brain structures and/or…