Evolution: Synapomorphies & Cladogram

Divergent and Convergent Pathways Once a new species forms, its evolutionary pathway may diverge from the original species. Disruptive selection continues long after speciation has occurred resulting in divergent evolution. Divergent evolution: occurs when two or more species evolve increasingly different traits, resulting from differing selective pressures or genetic drift. Species with significantly different morphological…

Models of Human Nature and Therapeutic Change

Biological (Medical) Model The mind’s activity depends on the brain whose composition is genetically determined Still acknowledge influences of environment and learning Genetic influences on anxiety and depression Brain structure different in individuals with schizophrenia- process information differently Therapy: Pharmacological treatments (medication) Behavioural Model Focuses on what people do rather than on brain structures and/or…

Speciation: Prezygotic and Postzygotic Barriers

Species: Latin word meaning “kind” Speciation: The origin of new species Macroevolution: The evolutionary changes above the species level eg. Appearance of feathers during the evolution of birds from one set of dinosaurs Anagenesis – one species over time becomes another species Cladogenesis– one species, over time, splits and becomes two species Morphogensis– look at…

Biology: The Evolution of populations

Microevolution: The change in the genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation Mendel’s model: the particulate hypothesis of inheritance Quantitative characteristics: characteristics of a population that vary along continuum. Eg. Fur length in mammals Population genetics: study of how populations change genetically over time. Modern synthesis: a comprehensive theory of evolution that integrated…