Temperature of Hot Water and Cooling Rate Lab

Introduction: The rate at which an object cools (i.e. how quickly its temperature decreases) depends upon several factors, including: Surface area Volume Type of insulation Temperature difference with the surroundings For this investigation, the effect of the temperature of water upon the rate of cooling will be investigated. The temperature-drop over 5 minutes (600 seconds)…

Physical Chemistry: Equations and Important Facts

Atoms, Molecules, and Quantum Mechanics   Avogadro’s number = 6.022 × 1023 Cations are smaller than the original ions; anions are larger than the original ions Five periodic trends Ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity increase from left to right, bottom to top Atomic radius and metallic character increase from right to left, top to…

Single Displacement Reactions Lab Explained

Purpose: Two observe two different single displacement reactions. Hypothesis: When zinc is added to copper (II) sulfate, a single displacement reaction will take place, creating a solid, copper, and zinc sulfate. When zinc is added to hydrochloric acid, hydrogen gas will be released a solid, zinc chloride, will be formed. Materials: Hydrochloric acid Zinc Copper…

Beer’s Law Lab Explained: Absorbance vs. Concentration

Introduction: According to Beer’s Law, A=Ebc, under ideal conditions, a substance’s concentration and its absorbance are directly proportional: a high-concentration solution absorbs more light, and solution of lower concentration absorbs less light. Since concentration and absorbance are proportional, Beer’s Law makes it possible to determine an unknown concentration of phosphate after determining the absorbance. The…

Titration Lab: NaOH with Standardized solution of KHP

Aim To standardize a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution against a primary standard acid [Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP)] using phenolphthalein as indicator. Variables Independent variables Mass of KHP (mKHP) Volume of KHP solution Dependent variables Volume of NaOH added [since the colour change will not happen at exactly the same volume of NaOH added (VNaOH)] Controlled…

Periodic Table Families: Properties & Uses

Metalloids: Are the least common type of elements, their properties are a mix of nonmetal and metal properties. The metalloids are hybrid elements. Perhaps the most important characteristic of metalloids is that they partially conduct electricity for semi-conductors. Nonmetals: Are opposites of metals, that’s why they are called nonmetals (not metals). They are not malleable…