Laws of Chemical Change

Observations of chemical reactions are summarized in certain generalizations called the laws of chemical change.  The three laws of chemical change are; 1)  Law of Conservation of Mass 2)  Law of Constant Composition 3)  Law of Multiple Proportions Law of Conservation of Mass States that during a chemical reaction, matter is neither created or destroyed…

ENTROPY

Entropy, S, is the tendency towards randomness or disorder in a system – an ordered arrangement of particles has a lower entropy/disorder than the same number of particles in random arrangements Entropy becomes more disordered with: 1.) ^ Temperature – more chaotic motion 2.) ^ Volume of gases 3.) change in phys. State A change…

Snell’s Law Questions/ Answers

Indices of Refraction for Various Media: Medium Index of Refraction (n) Air/vacuum 1.00 Ice 1.31 Water 1.33 Ethyl alcohol 1.36 Vegetable oil 1.47 Acrylic 1.49 Glass 1.52 Diamond 2.42 1. Using Snell’s law, determine the constant when the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction are: a) 50˚ and 30˚                       b) 30˚ and 18˚                      …

ORGANIC REACTIONS

To simplify the multitude of possible combinations of reactants, organic reactions fall under specific types. Combustion Substitution Addition Elimination Oxidation/reduction Condensation (dehydration synthesis) Hydrolysis (hydration) Polymerization Another tool to simplify your task of predicting products is to remember that functional groups will always react the same way. e.g. all 1o alcohols will react the same…

Haber Process

In order to produce as much ammonia as possible several factors need to be considered. The balanced chemical equation for this reaction is: Therefore a manufacturer would want to affect this equilibrium is such a way that the reaction would constantly wanted to shift to the right. The first way this could be achieved is…