Physical Geology & Plate Tectonics

Geology (study of Earth) is important for energy and natural resources, solving environmental problems, building cities and highways, predicting and protecting against natural disasters like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, floods Uniformitarianism: fundamental principle “the present is the key to the past” How long? geologic time is measured in billions of years Where and How? After…

Igneous Rocks: Formation, Composition, Naming

Igneous rocks crystallize from molten silicate material called magma that forms at high temperatures and pressures deep in the Earth. Magma rises through the crust and either reaches the surface by volcanoes (extrusive) or cools below surface (intrusive). How Magmas Evolve – according to Bowen’s Reaction Series: discontinuous (different molecular structures of olivine [single tetrahedra],…