If an equilibrium in a system is upset, the system will tend to react in a direction that will re-establish equilibrium

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1) Adding or Removing a Reactant or Product

– reaction shifts in a direction that will remove a substance added or replace a substance removed

2) Changes of Temperature

– increasing temperature shifts a reaction in a direction that produces an endothermic change

3) Changing Volume in Gaseous Reactions

– decreasing volume of a gaseous reaction mixture causes reaction to decrease number of molecules of gas (if it can)

4) Effect of Catalyst

– lower activation energy for forward and reverse reactions by equal amount

=> affect both rates equally

– cause reactions to reach equilibrium more rapidly

5) Addition of an Inert Gas at Constant Volume

– inert gas will not react with any equilibrium participants

– no affect on equilibrium (no effect on [  ] of participants)

  • no change in position of equilibrium

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