- The change in the genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation
- Quantitative characteristics: characteristics of a population that vary along continuum. Eg. Fur length in mammals
- Population genetics: study of how populations change genetically over time.
- Modern synthesis: a comprehensive theory of evolution that integrated ideas from many fields.
- Population: a localized group of individuals that is capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
- Gene pool: the total genes in a population at any one time
- Fixed gene: gene that exist at a particular locus in the gene pool. All individuals are homozygous
- Locus: specific place of a gene on a chromosome. If there is more than one gene at a locus then the individual may be either heterozygous or homozygous
- Incomplete dominance: phenotype of heterozygous individuals is intermediate between homozygous individuals
- When they are two alleles at a particular locus p is used to represent the frequency of one allele and q the other. MUST MULTIPLY GENES IN DIPLOID ORGANISMS
- Hardy Weinberg theorem: frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population’s gene pool remain constant form generation to generation, provided that only Mendelian segregation and recombination are at work.
- Hardy Weinberg equilibrium: population genotype frequencies can be predicted from allele frequencies.
- Mutation: change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
- Sexual recombination: shuffling of existing genes in the gene pool
- Neutral variation: base differences in humans that are found in the untranslated part of the genome and that have no selective advantage
- Pseudogenes: genes that have become inactivated by mutation
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