• Microevolution:
  • The change in the genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation
  • Mendel’s model: the particulate hypothesis of inheritance
  • Quantitative characteristics: characteristics of a population that vary along continuum. Eg. Fur length in mammals
  • Population genetics: study of how populations change genetically over time.
  • Modern synthesis: a comprehensive theory of evolution that integrated ideas from many fields.
  • Population: a localized group of individuals that is capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring.
  • Gene pool: the total genes in a population at any one time
  • Fixed gene: gene that exist at a particular locus in the gene pool. All individuals are homozygous
  • Locus: specific place of a gene on a chromosome. If there is more than one gene at a locus then the individual may be either heterozygous or homozygous
  • Incomplete dominance: phenotype of heterozygous individuals is intermediate between homozygous individuals
  • When they are two alleles at a particular locus p is used to represent the frequency of one allele and q the other. MUST MULTIPLY GENES IN DIPLOID ORGANISMS
  • Hardy Weinberg theorem: frequencies of alleles and genotypes in a population’s gene pool remain constant form generation to generation, provided that only Mendelian segregation and recombination are at work.
  • Hardy Weinberg equilibrium: population genotype frequencies can be predicted from allele frequencies.
  • Mutation: change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
  • Sexual recombination: shuffling of existing genes in the gene pool
  • Neutral variation: base differences in humans that are found in the untranslated part of the genome and that have no selective advantage
  • Pseudogenes: genes that have become inactivated by mutation

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