John Snow: Contributions to Society & Modern Epidemiology

John Snow, who was a practicing obstetrician in London during the Victorian era speculated that cholera, (originated from a contaminated water supply pump on Broad Street. Mayo Clinic (2017) has reported that “cholera is a bacterial disease usually spread through contaminated water. Cholera causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. Left untreated, cholera can be fatal in…

Lab Explained: Effect of Salinity on Seed Germination

Research Question How does salinity affect the seed germination of Solanum lycopersicum? Introduction Relevance to Real world Covering 14% of Australia and home to over two million people, the Murray Darling Basin is Australia’s largest and most iconic river systems (figure 1) (McCormick, 2015). As over one third of Australia’s food supply is produced by…

Essay: Embryonic DNA Reconfiguration via CRISPR

Just weeks ago on September 28th, Japan’s governmental health and science ministries officially drafted national guidelines on human gene-editing and manipulation experiments, particularly within embryos (Cyranoski, 2018). Before then, Japan’s stance on genetic experiments had remained neutral. Now it is joining an increasing list of countries who support this genetic innovation.             One of the…

Earth Sciences Study Guide: Atmospheres

From Figure 4.2, describe the geographic locations where coastal upwelling is important (e.g., “west central and southwestern South America”). Upwelling causes some of the coldest surface temperatures on Earth. The low surface temperatures stabilize the overlying atmosphere, causing cool dry climates (deserts) to dominate the western edge of South America. Upwelling is important where coastlines…

Earth Sciences Study Guide: The Climate System

Through which city does the prime meridian run?             Greenwich, England What are the dates of the solstices and equinoxes?             Summer solstice: June 21 Winter solstice: December 22 Vernal equinox: March 21 Autumnal equinox: September 22 Describe Earth–Sun relationships in terms of orbit, the Sun’s position, tilt and direction of Earth’s axis as it…

Earth Sciences Study Guide: Atmospheric Structure & Composition

Of what two gases was Earth’s first atmosphere primarily composed?             diatomic nitrogen, carbon dioxide What are the percentages of Earth’s three most abundant constant (non-variable) gases in the atmosphere?             nitrogen (78.08%), diatomic oxygen (20.95%), argon (0.93%) What are the variable gas within Earth’s atmosphere?             water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen, nitrous oxide,…