Lab Explained: Effects of Arm Muscle on Grip Strength

Introduction During a grip motion, the skeletal muscles in the arm and hand are used to generate and maintain the grip (Schoenfeld, 2012). Figure 1 shows the muscles, including the deltoids, triceps, biceps, and palmar muscles, that are involved in controlling movement and strength in the hand. Motor functions are controlled directly by the CNS…

Effect of Salt Concentration on Osmosis in Potato Cells Lab Answers

INTRODUCTION The cell membrane surrounds the cell and is responsible for the regulation of substances within the cell. There are many processes in which substances can travel through the membrane, one being osmosis. Osmosis is a form of passive transport (no energy required) and is a type of diffusion in liquid substances. It is the…

Lab Answers: How Does Light Intensity Affect the Rate of Photosynthesis

Rationale Photosynthesis represented by the equation 6H2O + 6CO2 → C6H12O6 + 6O2 is one of the most crucial chemical reactions on earth as it produces O2 molecules– a gas vital to the survival of many organisms (Vidyasagar, 2018) This process takes place during the light dependent phase of photosynthesis and is indicated by the…

John Snow: Contributions to Society & Modern Epidemiology

John Snow, who was a practicing obstetrician in London during the Victorian era speculated that cholera, (originated from a contaminated water supply pump on Broad Street. Mayo Clinic (2017) has reported that “cholera is a bacterial disease usually spread through contaminated water. Cholera causes severe diarrhea and dehydration. Left untreated, cholera can be fatal in…

Hemophilia: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Prognosis, Treatment

Introduction Hemophilia is a rare inherited genetic disorder that affects only one in every 10,000-40,000 people, depending on the type (Cimino, 2018).  The disorder has two types, Hemophilia A, and Hemophilia B.  Hemophilia A is a deficiency of growth factor VIII, and Hemophilia B is a deficiency of growth factor IX.  Both growth factors are…

Lab Explained: Effect of Salinity on Seed Germination

Research Question How does salinity affect the seed germination of Solanum lycopersicum? Introduction Relevance to Real world Covering 14% of Australia and home to over two million people, the Murray Darling Basin is Australia’s largest and most iconic river systems (figure 1) (McCormick, 2015). As over one third of Australia’s food supply is produced by…

Essay: Embryonic DNA Reconfiguration via CRISPR

Just weeks ago on September 28th, Japan’s governmental health and science ministries officially drafted national guidelines on human gene-editing and manipulation experiments, particularly within embryos (Cyranoski, 2018). Before then, Japan’s stance on genetic experiments had remained neutral. Now it is joining an increasing list of countries who support this genetic innovation.             One of the…

Lab Report Explained: Length and Electrical Resistance of a Wire

 INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND THEORY When electrons travel through wires or other external circuits, they travel in a zigzag pattern that results in a collision between the electrons and the ions in the conductor, and this is known as resistance. The resistance of a wire causes difficulty for the flow of the electrical current of a…