PROTEINS

Proteins in the human body have a wide range of functions which include: Hormones (insulin, testosterone), Muscle Fibers (actin, muasin), Carrier Protein (Oxygen carrying hemoglobin), Structure/ Support (nails/ hair), Enzymes (biological catalyst), Membrane Transport (Na/ K pump), Cell-to-Cell Recognition, Antibodies. Structure Proteins are polymers made up of amino acid subunits bonded together by peptide bonds.…

ORGANIC REACTIONS

To simplify the multitude of possible combinations of reactants, organic reactions fall under specific types. Combustion Substitution Addition Elimination Oxidation/reduction Condensation (dehydration synthesis) Hydrolysis (hydration) Polymerization Another tool to simplify your task of predicting products is to remember that functional groups will always react the same way. e.g. all 1o alcohols will react the same…

Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory

Valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory is a model in chemistry used to predict the shape of individual molecules based upon the extent of electron-pair electrostatic repulsion. It is also named Gillespie-Nyholm theory after its two main developers. The premise of VSEPR is that the valence electron pairs surrounding an atom mutually repel each…

Allergic Reactions & Allergies: Causes & Treatment

Allergy is a disorder of the immune system often also referred to as atopy. Allergic reactions occur to normally harmless environmental substances known as allergens; these reactions are acquired, predictable and rapid. Mind allergies can range from hay fever which causes runny nose and itchy eyes, to life-threatening anaphylactic reactions and potentially death. Allergies are…