Human Karyotyping

A karyotype is an organized profile of a person’s chromosomes. Chromosomes are arranged and numbered according to: – size, from largest to smallest – banding pattern, size and location of Giesma bands – centromere location, appear as a constriction This arrangement helps scientists quickly identify chromosomal alterations that may result in a genetic disorder. Karyotype…

Genetic Disorders: Causes

Mutations – any change in a gene that is accompanied by a loss or change in the functioning of the genetic information; many mutations are harmful – spontaneous mutations have no known cause; improper crossing over, DNA replication – induced mutations are caused by mutagens; radiation, chemicals, viruses Somatic Mutations – occur in regular body…

Enzymes: Structure and Function

Enzymes are specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions (biological catalysts) Without enzymes, cellular chemical reactions could not occur fast enough to maintain life. Enzyme Activity: –      enzyme binds to the reactants, called the substrate(s), of a chemical reaction –      the substrate joins with the enzyme at the enzymes active site forming an enzyme-substrate complex…

Eukaryote vs. Prokaryote

Below is a table that compares the differences in cell structure between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Criteria Type of Cell Prokaryote Eukaryote Nucleus? No Yes Internal membranes? No (no organelles) Yes (membrane bound organelles) DNA Single chromosome; ring Many; linear Reproduction method Asexual (binary fission) Asexual and sexual Size Small 10 times as large as…

Classification Level: Kingdom

The table below lists the basic general characteristics that are used to differentiate between the different kingdoms. Criteria Kingdom Animals Plants Fungi Protists Archaebacteria Eubacteria Type of cells Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Eukaryotic Prokaryotic Prokaryotic Cell wall None Yes (cellulose) Yes (chitin) None Yes (peptidoglycan) Yes Cell organization Multicellular Multicellular Multicellular Single celled Single celled Single…