Respiratory Disorders: Asthma, Bronchitis, Emphysema, Cystic Fibrosis

Asthma – results in contraction of smooth muscle that surrounds airways – makes breathing difficult – allergic reaction – treat with bronchodilators – causes airways to dilate (increase in diameter) Bronchitis – inflammation of bronchial lining + overproduction of mucous and frequent coughing – related to smoking and other irritants (air pollution etc) – increased…

Isomers: Structure and Function

In chemistry, isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. The word is derived from the Greek ισομερης, isomerès; isos = “equal”, méros = “part”. There are many different classes of isomers, like stereoisomers, enantiomers, geometrical isomers (see chart below). Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties, unless they also have…

German and Prussia History

From 1815 to 1847 –          The restored rulers of the German states would reverse/weaken any reforms from the Napoleonic period –          Student fraternities (Burschenschaft) the most radical element in Germany Conservative Historian assassinated, Metternich convinces Emperor of Austria/King of Prussia to institute the Carlsbad Decrees (dissolve fraternities & censorship) –          Further revolts towards 1830 German…

Bacteria Types and Classification

All Bacteria have the following characteristics: Unicellular and stick together in colonies Are prokaryotic (no nucleus, vacuoles, mitochondria or chloroplasts) They have a single chromosome in a DNA loop They reproduce asexually by binary fission Live in moist environment and are inactive in dry environments Two groups of Bacteria 1.  Archaebacteria – primitive bacteria that…

Ethical/ Social Issues in Biology

Organ Transplantation –          Living donations of the kidney, part of liver, lobe of lung, part of intestine and portion of pancreas can be made –          A donor must be healthy in order to give an organ –          The demand for living organs is increasing –          For cultural and personal reasons, some are resistant to transplants…

Synaptic Transmission

> synapse: spaces between neurons, or between neurons and effectors > vesicles containing chemical neurotransmitters are located at the end of neuron axons Electrical Signals: > electrical impulses moving along the axon stimulate the release of neurotransmitters Chemical Signals: > neurotransmitters are released from the presynaptic neuron and diffuse across the synaptic cleft > neurotransmitters…