ENTROPY

Entropy, S, is the tendency towards randomness or disorder in a system – an ordered arrangement of particles has a lower entropy/disorder than the same number of particles in random arrangements Entropy becomes more disordered with: 1.) ^ Temperature – more chaotic motion 2.) ^ Volume of gases 3.) change in phys. State A change…

Lab Safety Rules

The laboratory is a safe place to experiment if you are careful and familiar with all the equipment. You must assume responsibility for the safety of yourself and your neighbours. This paper outlines the steps to use for safety and first aid in this classroom. Student bags or back packs and coats are not permitted…

Snell’s Law Questions/ Answers

Indices of Refraction for Various Media: Medium Index of Refraction (n) Air/vacuum 1.00 Ice 1.31 Water 1.33 Ethyl alcohol 1.36 Vegetable oil 1.47 Acrylic 1.49 Glass 1.52 Diamond 2.42 1. Using Snell’s law, determine the constant when the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction are: a) 50˚ and 30˚                       b) 30˚ and 18˚                      …

PROTEINS

Proteins in the human body have a wide range of functions which include: Hormones (insulin, testosterone), Muscle Fibers (actin, muasin), Carrier Protein (Oxygen carrying hemoglobin), Structure/ Support (nails/ hair), Enzymes (biological catalyst), Membrane Transport (Na/ K pump), Cell-to-Cell Recognition, Antibodies. Structure Proteins are polymers made up of amino acid subunits bonded together by peptide bonds.…

ORGANIC REACTIONS

To simplify the multitude of possible combinations of reactants, organic reactions fall under specific types. Combustion Substitution Addition Elimination Oxidation/reduction Condensation (dehydration synthesis) Hydrolysis (hydration) Polymerization Another tool to simplify your task of predicting products is to remember that functional groups will always react the same way. e.g. all 1o alcohols will react the same…

BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES

Biological molecules are macromolecules, which basically means they are polymers composed on small repeating units that have been covalently bonded together.  The exception to this is a type of lipid called triacyleglycerides or phospholipids which are relatively large molecules composed of smaller molecules bonded together. Subunits are chemically liked together in the cell by a…