What is Bioamplification?

Bioamplification is the accumulation of toxic pollutants in an animal. Toxins can be removed from the bodies of animals through sweating and urination, but these toxins need to be water soluble. DDT, DDE, PCBs, toxaphene, and the organic forms of mercury and arsenic do biomagnify in nature. These substances are consequently known as ‘persistent organic…

Human Karyotyping

A karyotype is an organized profile of a person’s chromosomes. Chromosomes are arranged and numbered according to: – size, from largest to smallest – banding pattern, size and location of Giesma bands – centromere location, appear as a constriction This arrangement helps scientists quickly identify chromosomal alterations that may result in a genetic disorder. Karyotype…

Genetic Disorders: Causes

Mutations – any change in a gene that is accompanied by a loss or change in the functioning of the genetic information; many mutations are harmful – spontaneous mutations have no known cause; improper crossing over, DNA replication – induced mutations are caused by mutagens; radiation, chemicals, viruses Somatic Mutations – occur in regular body…

Enzymes: Structure and Function

Enzymes are specialized proteins that speed up chemical reactions (biological catalysts) Without enzymes, cellular chemical reactions could not occur fast enough to maintain life. Enzyme Activity: –      enzyme binds to the reactants, called the substrate(s), of a chemical reaction –      the substrate joins with the enzyme at the enzymes active site forming an enzyme-substrate complex…