Softwood Forests:

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  • coniferous trees (cone-bearing:  fir, pine, spruce)
  • make up 66% of Canada’s forests

Hardwood Forests:

  • deciduous trees (lose leaves every year:  birch, maple)
  • make up 12% of Canada’s forests
  • Commercial Forests
  • Trees are harvested to make a profit
  • exists in warmer, wetter areas where trees grow quickly
  • British Columbia, Alberta

Non-commercial Forests

  • Not profitable for harvesting due to location
  • temperature and precipitation levels are too low for trees to grow quickly and large enough
  • Methods of Harvesting Forests
  • Logging
  • Clear-cutting:
    • every tree is removed leaving a barren landscape
    • used with pine, spruce, fir, aspen, poplar
    • land may be damaged due to erosion

Shelterwood Logging:

  • Northern Quebec and  Labrador
  • clear-cutting only part of a forest leaving seed-bearing trees to regenerate logged areas
  • used with white pine and/or where trees are all same size and age:

Selective Cutting:

  • harvesting only mature trees that are same size/age/type
  • hardwoods are cut this way
  • less disruptive to a forest yet very costly
  • Forestry Products
  • Pulp and Paper
    • Canada is the largest exporter and second
    • largest producer in the world
      • Plants are located in Quebec, Ontario, B.C.
      • timber, plywood, cedar, particleboard, chipboard

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