Hunger & Weight Regulation: The Physiology of Hunger

Metabolism – body’s rate of energy utilization Two-thirds of energy used goes to support basal metabolism, the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells Immediate energy supply information interacts with other signals to regulate food intake (hunger not necessarily linked to immediate energy needs) Homeostatic mechanisms are designed to prevent people from running low on…

Brain: Imaging, Anatomy, Lateralization

Scores on neuropsychological tests show amount of damage done to person Destruction and Stimulation test: can destroy parts of the brain to see effect or stimulate nerves with electrodes  (Dr. Penfield- famous neuroscientists) – mapped motor and sensory areas Broca’s aphasia: could understand, but not speak Dorsal Stream: action (D.A) Ventral Stream: perception (V.P) Single-…

Brain Structure: Depolarization & Neurotransmitters

Neurons: constructive unit of the nervous system; interconnected like electrical circuits Made up of: Soma (cell body): contains nucleus, keeps nerve cells alive (grey matter) Dendrites: receiving portion of nerve cell- receiving end of cell Axon: sends impulses away from the cell (white matter) Dendrites and axons are all interconnected; vary in shape and size…

Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa

Definition An eating disorder characterized by the refusal or inability to eat which creates a state of self-starvation. Characteristics Victims have a severe distortion of body image and extreme concern about appearances.  Use voluntary starvation, excessive exercise and diet pills to try and achieve idealized body proportions. Have an obsession with food and calories. Physical…

Biotic Relationships: Commensalism, Niche, Parasitism

Niche An organism’s ecological ROLE in the environment (NOT HABITAT!) All components of lifestyle and how they affect other organisms Three Types of Symbiosis Mutualism both species benefit Commensalism one species benefits, the other is unaffected Parasitism one species benefits, the other is harmed Lichen Lichen is really two organisms: algae and fungus. The fungus…

KINGDOM ANIMALIA: General Characteristics of Animals

Characteristics of Life Living things are organized. Living things are made up of cells. Living things metabolize. Living things maintain an internal environment. Living things grow. Living things respond. Living things reproduce. Living things evolve. Seven Levels of Taxonomic Classification Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Kingdom Animalia Characteristics All animals are multicellular, eukaryotic…

Kingdom: Fungi Characteristics & Structure

Mycology Myco- = fungus -ology= study of General Characteristics of Fungi: Eukaryotic Decomposers – the best recyclers around No chlorophyll – non photosynthetic Most multicellular (hyphae) – some unicellular (yeast) Non-motile Cell walls made of chitin (kite-in) instead of cellulose like that of a plant Are more related to animals than plant kingdom Lack true…

Phylum Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Chordata

The largest animal phylum- 1 million species of crabs, shrimp, spiders, scorpions and insects make up this phylum Have jointed appendages; segmented bodies Exoskeletons made of chitin Molt;  have heads with many sensory organs. Bilateral Simple and complex eyes that detect only light intensity and form images Antennae that smell chemical substances in the environment…

Conservation Biology: Extinction, Habitat Loss, Invasive Species, Overexploitation

SPECIES EXTINCTION Species can become extinct: Locally: A species is no longer found in an area it once inhabited but is still found elsewhere in the world. Ecologically: Occurs when so few members of a species are left they no longer play its ecological role. Globally (biologically): Species is no longer found on the earth.…