Energy Movement in Ecosystems: Trophic & Energy Pyramid

Organisms can be classified into trophic (feeding) levels depending on how they get their energy. Organisms that get their energy from nonliving sources (sun, organic matter) are called autotrophs (producers) and make up the 1st trophic level. Organisms that get their energy from other living things are called heterotrophs (consumers). Heterotrophs that eat autotrophs make…

Evolution: Synapomorphies & Cladogram

Divergent and Convergent Pathways Once a new species forms, its evolutionary pathway may diverge from the original species. Disruptive selection continues long after speciation has occurred resulting in divergent evolution. Divergent evolution: occurs when two or more species evolve increasingly different traits, resulting from differing selective pressures or genetic drift. Species with significantly different morphological…

Models of Human Nature and Therapeutic Change

Biological (Medical) Model The mind’s activity depends on the brain whose composition is genetically determined Still acknowledge influences of environment and learning Genetic influences on anxiety and depression Brain structure different in individuals with schizophrenia- process information differently Therapy: Pharmacological treatments (medication) Behavioural Model Focuses on what people do rather than on brain structures and/or…

Speciation: Prezygotic and Postzygotic Barriers

Species: Latin word meaning “kind” Speciation: The origin of new species Macroevolution: The evolutionary changes above the species level eg. Appearance of feathers during the evolution of birds from one set of dinosaurs Anagenesis – one species over time becomes another species Cladogenesis– one species, over time, splits and becomes two species Morphogensis– look at…