Physical Chemistry: Equations and Important Facts

Atoms, Molecules, and Quantum Mechanics Avogadro’s number = 6.022 × 1023 Cations are smaller than the original ions; anions are larger than the original ions Five periodic trends Ionization energy, electron affinity, and electronegativity increase from left to right, bottom to top Atomic radius and metallic character increase from right to left, top to bottom…

Single Displacement Reactions Lab Explained

Purpose: Two observe two different single displacement reactions. Hypothesis: When zinc is added to copper (II) sulfate, a single displacement reaction will take place, creating a solid, copper, and zinc sulfate. When zinc is added to hydrochloric acid, hydrogen gas will be released a solid, zinc chloride, will be formed. Materials: Hydrochloric acid Zinc Copper…

Pros and Cons of Hydro electric & Wind energy

SOURCE ADVANTAGES DISADVANTAGES   HYDROELECTRICITY Produce inexpensive electricity Disrupt natural river flow Reservoirs used for flood control, irrigation, drinking water, and recreation Slow down river flow that can kill fish and other animals that depend on a steady flow Renewable energy source Alter water quality Increases reliability of energy sources Significant obstacle to fish and…

Beer’s Law Lab Explained: Absorbance vs. Concentration

Introduction: According to Beer’s Law, A=Ebc, under ideal conditions, a substance’s concentration and its absorbance are directly proportional: a high-concentration solution absorbs more light, and solution of lower concentration absorbs less light. Since concentration and absorbance are proportional, Beer’s Law makes it possible to determine an unknown concentration of phosphate after determining the absorbance. The…

Dihybrid Cross Practice Problems

Directions: Complete the following Dihybrid Cross problems. Identify the gametes from each parent. Complete a Punnett Square for the cross Identify the genotypes and phenotypes for the potential offspring. Find the phenotypic ratio for the potential offspring. Betta (Chinese/ Siamese fighting fish) Characteristics [Upper Case= Dominant & Lower Case= Recessive] B= Blue Tail                                                         b= black…

Digestive System Terms & Definitions

Balanced Diet: Suitable amounts of all nutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, mineral salts, vitamins, fibre and water) required for normal healthy living.Autotrophic Feeding: Way of feeding; food is made by the plants themselves.Heterotrophic Feeding: Way of feeding; animals feed on ready-made food.Digestion: Large insoluble molecules of food are broken down into small moleculesEgestion: Food that can’t…

Somatropin (Human Growth Hormone): Production & Function

Somatropin, also known as Human Growth Hormone (HGH) or even sometimes just Growth Hormone (GH) is a hormone created in the pituitary gland dealing with growth. Before somatropin can be created, Human Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (HGHRH) and Somatostatin (SST) are released by the Hypothalamus. Many factors can influence HGH release, of which the main…

Titration Lab: NaOH with Standardized solution of KHP

Aim To standardize a sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution against a primary standard acid [Potassium Hydrogen Phthalate (KHP)] using phenolphthalein as indicator. Variables Independent variables Mass of KHP (mKHP)   Volume of KHP solution Dependent variables Volume of NaOH added [since the colour change will not happen at exactly the same volume of NaOH added (VNaOH)]…