What is Evolution?

Evolution describes the changes in the gene pool of a species over time.  These changes are the results of mutations, natural selection and genetic drift. Often populations produce more offspring than the environment can support; in other words, they often exceed the carrying capacity.  Over-production of offspring leads to intraspecific competition and survival of the…

Isomers: Structure and Function

In chemistry, isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. The word is derived from the Greek ισομερης, isomerès; isos = “equal”, méros = “part”. There are many different classes of isomers, like stereoisomers, enantiomers, geometrical isomers (see chart below). Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties, unless they also have…

German and Prussia History

From 1815 to 1847 –          The restored rulers of the German states would reverse/weaken any reforms from the Napoleonic period –          Student fraternities (Burschenschaft) the most radical element in Germany Conservative Historian assassinated, Metternich convinces Emperor of Austria/King of Prussia to institute the Carlsbad Decrees (dissolve fraternities & censorship) –          Further revolts towards 1830 German…

Scientific Taxonomy

–      the study of categorizing organisms   Binomial Nomenclature – two-part scientific naming of organisms –      the first word identifies the genus and the second word is the species Example: Ursus americanus – Ursus horribilis – Ursus arctos – Ursus maritimus – NOTE: the format: capitals and italics Levels of Classification (7) or Taxa: “King…

Synaptic Transmission

> synapse: spaces between neurons, or between neurons and effectors > vesicles containing chemical neurotransmitters are located at the end of neuron axons Electrical Signals: > electrical impulses moving along the axon stimulate the release of neurotransmitters Chemical Signals: > neurotransmitters are released from the presynaptic neuron and diffuse across the synaptic cleft > neurotransmitters…