|Nucleus||-classified as eukaryotic or prokaryotic depending on whether or not it has a membrane bound-Heredity or genetic information is organized into threadlike structures called chromosomes.-contains DNA-composed of nucleic acids and proteins||– control centre of the cell|
– directs all cell activity-directs other cell activities.
|Cell Membrane||-composed of proteins and a double layer of lipids (fat)-very flexible-proteins and carbohydrates, move about within the membrane therefore the cell membrane is called the fluid mosaic model.||-holds contents in place-regulates the movement of materials in and out of the cell.|
-two different sections of membrane results in a selectivity permeable membrane
|Nucleolus||-dark stained spherical structure inside nucleus.||-involved in making a genetic material called ribosomal RNA.|
|Cytoplasm||-fluid that contains all parts of the cell.-important for chemical reactions.||-many cells activities take place here.|
-absorbed nutrients are transported and processed.
-stores wastes until proper disposal can be carried out.
|Flagella and Cilia||-flagella: whip like tails.-cilia: hair like||Flagella: helps cell move by using contractile proteins to spin it in a corkscrew motion.Cilia: create fluid currents to move materials.|
|Mitochondria||-oval shaped-double membrane a smooth outer membrane and a folded inner one.-the inner layer consists of fingerlike projections called cristae||– power plant-abundant in cells that require chemical energy-involved in cellular respirationC6H12O6 + O2 —à CO2 +H2 + ATP|
-ATP travels in cytoplasm to where energy is required
– ADP needs to recharge to do work. Energy for this recharge comes from breaking the bonds in your food done by oxygen. When ADP is recharged it becomes ATP and is ready to do work.
|Ribosomes||-proteins are composed of chains of smaller molecules called amino acids, which are chemically bonded together by enzymes at the ribosomes.-Made of rRNA and proteins measuring just 20 nm in length, smallest organelles.||-where proteins are synthesized|
|Endoplasmic Reticulum||-a network of interconnected canals carries materials throughout the cytoplasm.-The membranes can appear rough or smooth. The rough ones have ribosomes on it.||-fats and lipids are synthesized|
-develops seeds in animal cells that secrete steroid hormones
|Golgi Appartus||-looks like a stack of flattened balloons which are membrane sacs piled.||-stores, modifies, and packages proteins from RER.|
-membrane bound structures pinch off at the ends to produce smaller protein sacs called vesicles. Vesicles move toward the plasma membrane, fuse with it and empty their contents outside the cell in a process called exocytosis. Through this, large molecules are released from the cells.
|Lysosomes||-Bound by single membrane and formed by the golgi apparatus.-contain a variety of enzymes that break down large molecules an cell parts within the cytoplasm.||-destroys harmful substances that find their way into the cell.-When white blood cells and bacteria encounter each other, lysosomes release their digestive enzyme fluid. Any protein fragments that remain after the cells have been destroyed make up a substance called pus.|
-destroys warn out cells.
|Microfilaments||-pipe like structure found in cytoplasm.-found in muscle cells.||-provide shape and movement for cells.|
|Microtubules||-tiny tube like fibers composed of proteins-found in cilia and flagella.||-transport materials through out the cytoplasm.|
|Plastids||-found in plant cells||-functional factories for the production of sugar or as store houses for starch and some pigments.|
|Chloroplasts||-plastids contain green pigment chlorophyll.-contain DNA and ribosomes.||-Specialize in photosynthesis.-self replicating|
|Chromoplasts||-type of plastid||-store the orange and yellow pigments found in numerous plant parts including fruit and flowers|
|Amyloplast||-colorless plastid||-storehouse for starch|
|Cell Wall||-composed of cellulose-some plants have a single cell wall referred to as the primary cell but others have a secondary cell wall.-rearranged in regular patterns. The layer between the cell wall is referred to as lamella. It contains pectin which holds the cells together.||-protects and supports plant cells.-second wall provides extra support.|