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- Contains most of the genetic info in the eukaryotic cell (some genes are located in mitochondria and chloroplasts)
- Contains 1 or more nucleolus
- surrounded by nuclear envelope
Nuclear envelope: a double membrane that encloses the nucleus separating its contents from the cytoplasm.
Nucleolus – appears as a mass of densely stained granules and fibres
- protein subunits of ribosomes are made here before being exported into cytoplasm for assembly
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Ribosomes – organelles that carry out protein synthesis
- 2 types:
o Free ribosomes – suspended in the cytoplasm
o Bound ribosomes – are attached to the outside of the endoplasmic reticulum or nuclear envelope
Endoplasmic Reticulum – an extensive network of membrane-covered channels that transport materials made in the cell, is connect to the nucleus
Lysosomes – consist of digestive enzymes enclosed in a membranous sac which help to break down ingested substances to be released to the cell as nutrients
Mitochondria – organelle with membranes where energy is released form glucose to fuel cell activities.
Chloroplasts – photosynthesizing organelles, convert light energy to chemical energy (sugars). Found in plant cells only
Cell Wall – tough rigid structure that lies outside plant cell’s membrane. Protects plant cell and maintains shape of plant cell.
Cell Membrane: separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment and controls the flow of materials into and out of the cell
Cytoplasm: includes the cytosol (liquid part), organelles and other life-supporting materials
Vesicles: membrane-covered sacs that transport and/or store materials inside the cell. Also help materials cross the cell membrane to enter or leave cell
Vacuoles: contain water and other materials. Used to store or transport smaller molecules. Plant cells have 1 large vacuole animal cells have many small vacuoles
Cytoskeleton: Helps cell maintain its structure and provide tracks for vesicles and organelles to move. Made of filaments and tubules that provides a framework for the cell