### Topographic Maps

Topographic maps are made specifically to show elevation. They show elevation through the use of contour lines. *The mountain below has 1 peak! 4000m What is the lowest elevation of this mountain?  1000 m PLEASE NOTE: Not every elevation can be represented by a contour line. Index contours: bold contour (lines used to calculate the…

### Modeling the Planet

*In order to be able to learn more about Earth as a whole, we must be able to look at it as a whole, and be able to see and find areas of particular interest. *A map is a flat, 2-dimensional representation of Earth’s surface. –cartographer: mapmaker –projections: the different ways in which maps can…

### Analysis of Scientific Experiments (Scientific Method)

In order to create and perform scientific experiments, you must first become aware of the parts that are involved in designing an appropriate experiment, as well as the vocabulary that is associated with each part. Vocabulary associated with scientific experiments: –variable: any part of an experiment that can vary –control: any part of the experiment…

### Constellations, Galaxies, and the Universe

*Billions of galaxies make up the universe, which, according to the big bang model, formed between 10 & 20 billion years ago. After today’s lecture, you should be able to: -Tell what a galaxy is and describe the various types of galaxies. -Explain the origin of the universe according to the big bang model. A)…

### A Closer Look at Light

*Astronomers analyze light from objects in space in order to learn about the composition and movement of the objects. After today’s lecture, you should be able to: –    Describe the characteristics of electromagnetic radiation. –    Explain ways of analyzing light in order to get information about stars. –    Explain the Doppler Effect and how it…

### The Planets: Formation of the Solar System

A great cloud of gas and dust (called a nebula) begins to collapse and spin Nebula begins to flatten into a spinning pancake shape with a bulge at the center This is due to forces of gravity and rotation Further collapse causes certain regions to condense into the sun, planets, and moons In the center…

### The Sun’s Size, Heat, and Structure

*The sun affects our lives in more ways than we can imagine (even though it is about 150 million km away!): produces heat, light, energy for photosynthesis, food, wind, ocean currents, tides, radiation, weather, etc. After today’s lecture, you should be able to: -Explain the structure of the sun and its energy source. -Describe the…

### The Moon’s Motions & Phases

*The moon travels in a regular and predictable motion.  After today’s lecture, you should be able to: -Describe the motions of the moon. -Explain the reason the moon goes through phases. -Analyze how the Earth-moon-sun geometry causes lunar and solar eclipses. *Like the sun, the moon rises in the east and sets in the west,…

### Origin and Properties of the Moon

*Earth’s nearest neighbor in the universe is the moon!  After today’s lecture, you should be able to: Explain various hypotheses about how the moon formed. Describe features and properties of the moon. Astronomy: the study of the universe The 1st probes landed on the moon in 1959. The 1st people landed on the moon in…

### Ocean Currents

The water in the ocean is constantly on the move.  These movements, called ocean currents, usually involve large water masses and may flow at the surface or far below it. Ocean Current: any continuous flow of water along a broad path in the ocean Surface Current: an ocean current that generally flows in the upper…

### Properties of Water & Ocean Water

Oceans cover most (~70%) of Earth’s surface, thus, Earth is sometimes called the ‘water planet’.  Oceans affect all our lives by providing food, allowing transport of goods, and affecting weather and climate. Oceanography: the scientific study of the ocean and seas Properties of Water *Water is an extremely unique compound! -Solid water (ice) is actually…

### What makes the wind blow? Factors Affecting Winds & Patterns

Wind:  the horizontal movement of air –Useful in many ways: 1. moderates surface temperatures 2. distributes moisture 3. cleanses the atmosphere -Wind is constantly blowing across Earth’s surface! –What sets the air into motion? *Differences in air pressure! -Air wants to flow from an area of high-pressure to an area of low-pressure. *For example: When…

### Air Pressure and Wind: Why does air pressure change?

Air Pressure: the force of air molecules exerted on a given area; the weight of the atmosphere as it pushes down upon Earth’s surface -Exerted in all directions because air molecules move in all directions. –Why aren’t we crushed by its weight? Because as the air is pushing in all around us, there are forces…

### Humidity and Condensation

*Water is the ONLY substance on Earth to commonly exist in all 3 states of matter! 1. solid– ↓ 0°C; ice, snow, hail, frost 2. liquid– 0°→100°C; rain, cloud droplets, dew 3. gas– ↑ 100°C; water vapor (The bubbles in boiling water!) *You can feel water vapor as humidity in the air! The more humid…

### Principles of Ecology

Organisms and Their Environment What is Ecology? –Ecology: The scientific study of interactions among organisms and their environments *Ecology reveals relationships among living and nonliving parts of the world! Ex- what a coyote eats; -how day length influences the behavior of migrating birds; -how shrimp help rid ocean fishes of parasites; -how acid rain threatens…

### Viruses and Bacteria & Immunity from Disease

Viruses *Viruses and bacteria are present everywhere – in the air, on the ground, in the water, on inanimate objects, and even in and around your body. -Some of these microorganisms are important in nature’s nutrient cycles and in the food and pharmaceutical industries, while others can cause diseases. What is a virus? Virus: a…

### The History of Life and The Theory of Evolution

The Record of Life *Everything changes over time.  The Earth has changed dramatically during the estimated 4.6 billion years it has existed. – All of the biodiversity present on Earth today is a result of the evolution of unicellular organisms that lived billions of years ago. – Evolution: the change in populations over time –         …

### Biotic and Abiotic Factors Influence on Ecosystems

Both abiotic and biotic factors determine both where an organism can live and how much a population can grow.  A limiting factor is a factor that restricts the size of a population from reaching its full potential. The amount of food & water in a habitat is an example of a limiting factor. Other factors…

### The Importance Of Water

As discussed in class, water is an essential of all living things.  Watersheds are important to freshwater ecosystems.  Watersheds are an area of land through which all water drains into a single river or lake.  The runoff in a watershed can have dramatic effects on an ecosystem. Since oceans cover more than 70% of the…

### Half-Life: Radioactive Elements Decay Over Time

Radioactive elements have a half-life. Half-life occurs naturally in some of the radioactive elements while it could be artificially stimulated in some other elements. The half life of any given element is the time that is required for one half of the sample to decay. For example:  If you have 10 grams of a radioactive…