*In order to be able to learn more about Earth as a whole, we must be able to look at it as a whole, and be able to see and find areas of particular interest.

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*A map is a flat, 2-dimensional representation of Earth’s surface.

cartographer: mapmaker

projections: the different ways in which maps can be drawn

-The most common map projection is called the Mercator Projection.

Positives: shows whole world, except extreme polar regions; shows directions as straight lines

Negatives: distorts the areas near the poles; omits extreme polar regions

– How do you know the size of the area you’re looking at on a map?

– By using the map scale: tells you how the map’s features compare in size with Earth’s features (either a ratio, picture, or in words).

*Earth is 3-dimensional, thus, maps distort Earth’s features somewhat.

-A Globe is the most accurate model of Earth, but is not convenient!  (You can’t put it in your pocket, or use it to find your way across town!)

*We can actually pinpoint locations on Earth, and give each point a unique and unchangeable ‘address’ so that locations are easy to locate!

– Lines of latitude (or parallels) circle the Earth from east to west, and run parallel to the equator

Equator: the imaginary line dividing the northern and southern hemispheres (hemi= half)

– The equator= 0° latitude

Captain James Cook: British Explorer, Navigator & Cartographer

– All other lines of latitude are measured in degrees N or S of the equator.

– North Pole= 90° N

– South Pole= 90° S

-Lines of longitude (or meridians) are half-circles that run from north to south, between the poles.

Prime Meridian= 0° longitude

– All other lines of longitude are measured in degrees E or W of the Prime Meridian.

*Each degree of latitude or longitude is further divided into 60 minutes ( ΄ ), and each minute into 60 seconds ( ˝ ).

– My home town of Findlay, OH is located at:   41°3΄N, 83°39΄W

Time Zones:

-There are 24 time zones. Why??

-24 hours in a day!

-The Earth’s circumference is 360°.

-Divide 360° by 24 hours in a day= 15° per time zone.

-Time zones are adjusted to accommodate city limits and borders!

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