*In order to be able to learn more about Earth as a whole, we must be able to look at it as a whole, and be able to see and find areas of particular interest.

*A map is a flat, 2-dimensional representation of Earth’s surface.

cartographer: mapmaker

projections: the different ways in which maps can be drawn

-The most common map projection is called the Mercator Projection.

Positives: shows whole world, except extreme polar regions; shows directions as straight lines

Negatives: distorts the areas near the poles; omits extreme polar regions

– How do you know the size of the area you’re looking at on a map?

– By using the map scale: tells you how the map’s features compare in size with Earth’s features (either a ratio, picture, or in words).

*Earth is 3-dimensional, thus, maps distort Earth’s features somewhat.

-A Globe is the most accurate model of Earth, but is not convenient!  (You can’t put it in your pocket, or use it to find your way across town!)

*We can actually pinpoint locations on Earth, and give each point a unique and unchangeable ‘address’ so that locations are easy to locate!

– Lines of latitude (or parallels) circle the Earth from east to west, and run parallel to the equator

Equator: the imaginary line dividing the northern and southern hemispheres (hemi= half)

– The equator= 0° latitude

– All other lines of latitude are measured in degrees N or S of the equator.

– North Pole= 90° N

– South Pole= 90° S

-Lines of longitude (or meridians) are half-circles that run from north to south, between the poles.

Prime Meridian= 0° longitude

– All other lines of longitude are measured in degrees E or W of the Prime Meridian.

*Each degree of latitude or longitude is further divided into 60 minutes ( ΄ ), and each minute into 60 seconds ( ˝ ).

– My home town of Findlay, OH is located at:   41°3΄N, 83°39΄W

Time Zones:

-There are 24 time zones. Why??

-24 hours in a day!

-The Earth’s circumference is 360°.

-Divide 360° by 24 hours in a day= 15° per time zone.

-Time zones are adjusted to accommodate city limits and borders!

William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team)
William completed his Bachelor of Science and Master of Arts in 2013. He current serves as a lecturer, tutor and freelance writer. In his spare time, he enjoys reading, walking his dog and parasailing. Article last reviewed: 2022 | St. Rosemary Institution © 2010-2024 | Creative Commons 4.0