Heavy Metal Lab Answers: S. cerevisiae & R. rubra

Introduction Despite being naturally occurring, the amount of heavy metals in the environment has increased greatly throughout the years as a result of industrialization and human activity. Although many of these metals are vital for sustaining the lives of various microorganisms, high levels have resulted in much pollution and the disruption of the biotic processes…

Determining Ksp of Calcium Hydroxide through Titration

Introduction Aqueous calcium hydroxide, also known as lime water is used to verify the presence of carbon dioxide gas, (carbon dioxide reacts with the calcium hydroxide to produce calcium carbonate) this is achieved by bubbling the gas through the solution, if the solution turns cloudy then the precipitate calcium carbonate has formed, thus carbon dioxide…

Genetic Recombination in Eukaryotes: Meiosis

Sexual reproduction: production of offspring; union of male and female gametes Gametes: eggs and sperms cells in animals Sexual reproduction depends on Meiosis; specialized process of cell division; recombines DNA sequences, produces cells with half the number of chromosomes in somatic cells. (chromosome= reduction) Fertilization: nuclei of egg/ sperm fuse; producing zygote (# chromosomes typical…

Prokaryotic: F factor, Transformation, Transduction

Genetic recombination needs: Homologous chromosomes; must differ from one another along one at least two spots Mechanism to bring into close proximity of each other Homology allows the DNA to line and recombine precisely. Cut and passing 4 DNA backbones results in 1 recombination event. Lederberg Experiment E.coli grown in minimal medium; contains water, organic…

Cell Cycles: Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis

Cell Cycle: nuclear division, cytokinesis Parental cell: genetic copies of parental cell 3 process: checks/ regulators for each step to ensure timely progression, replication process to synthesis DNA into two copies, interwoven “cables” and “motors” of mitotic cytoskeletons. Chromosomes: nuclear units of genetic information; DNA molecules combined with proteins. In eukaryotes, heredity information of nucleus…

Sexual Motivation: The Physiology of Sex

Sexual response cycle – four stage cycle experienced during sexual arousal Excitement phase – arousal builds rapidly Plateau phase – respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion, and muscle tension continue to build until there is enough muscle tension to trigger orgasm Orgasm phase – males: rhythmic contractions of internal organs and muscle tissue surrounding the urethra project…

Types of Motivation and Emotion

Motivation – process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal directed behaviour Perspectives on Motivation Instinct Theory and Modern Evolutionary Psychology Instinct (fixed action pattern) – an inherited characteristic, common to all members of a species, that automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus Theories faded…