Scientific Taxonomy

–      the study of categorizing organisms   Binomial Nomenclature – two-part scientific naming of organisms –      the first word identifies the genus and the second word is the species Example: Ursus americanus – Ursus horribilis – Ursus arctos – Ursus maritimus – NOTE: the format: capitals and italics Levels of Classification (7) or Taxa: “King…

Synaptic Transmission

> synapse: spaces between neurons, or between neurons and effectors > vesicles containing chemical neurotransmitters are located at the end of neuron axons Electrical Signals: > electrical impulses moving along the axon stimulate the release of neurotransmitters Chemical Signals: > neurotransmitters are released from the presynaptic neuron and diffuse across the synaptic cleft > neurotransmitters…

Thermoregulation

Thermoregulation is the maintenance of body temperature within a range that enables cells to function efficiently. Mammals, including humans, are endotherms, able to maintain a constant body temperature regardless of our surroundings. The hypothalamus acts as your body’s “thermostat”, detecting changes in body temperature and sending out messages to help restore the normal body temperature.…

Energy Flow in Living Systems

Living organisms must continually capture/acquire, store, and use energy to carry out the functions of life. Capturing/acquiring, storing and using energy are accomplished through cellular chemical processes. Cells are chemical machines that obey fundamental chemical and physical laws of nature. The sum of a cells chemical reactions is called metabolism. Energy Energy is the ability…

C4 and CAM Plants

– O2 competes with CO2 for rubisco’s active site – rubisco catalyzes two reactions: 1) addition of carbon to RuBP; forms 2 PGA molecules (photosynthesis) 2) addition of oxygen to RuBP; forms 1 PGA and one glycolate (photorespiration) – photorespiration decreases the production of carbohydrates by removing PGA from the Calvin cycle – glycolate is…