Prokaryotic: F factor, Transformation, Transduction

Genetic recombination needs: Homologous chromosomes; must differ from one another along one at least two spots Mechanism to bring into close proximity of each other Homology allows the DNA to line and recombine precisely. Cut and passing 4 DNA backbones results in 1 recombination event. Lederberg Experiment E.coli grown in minimal medium; contains water, organic…

Cell Cycles: Interphase, Mitosis, Cytokinesis

Cell Cycle: nuclear division, cytokinesis Parental cell: genetic copies of parental cell 3 process: checks/ regulators for each step to ensure timely progression, replication process to synthesis DNA into two copies, interwoven “cables” and “motors” of mitotic cytoskeletons. Chromosomes: nuclear units of genetic information; DNA molecules combined with proteins. In eukaryotes, heredity information of nucleus…

Sexual Motivation: The Physiology of Sex

Sexual response cycle – four stage cycle experienced during sexual arousal Excitement phase – arousal builds rapidly Plateau phase – respiration, heart rate, vasocongestion, and muscle tension continue to build until there is enough muscle tension to trigger orgasm Orgasm phase – males: rhythmic contractions of internal organs and muscle tissue surrounding the urethra project…

Types of Motivation and Emotion

Motivation – process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal directed behaviour Perspectives on Motivation Instinct Theory and Modern Evolutionary Psychology Instinct (fixed action pattern) – an inherited characteristic, common to all members of a species, that automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus Theories faded…

Hunger & Weight Regulation: The Physiology of Hunger

Metabolism – body’s rate of energy utilization Two-thirds of energy used goes to support basal metabolism, the resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells Immediate energy supply information interacts with other signals to regulate food intake (hunger not necessarily linked to immediate energy needs) Homeostatic mechanisms are designed to prevent people from running low on…

Brain: Imaging, Anatomy, Lateralization

Scores on neuropsychological tests show amount of damage done to person Destruction and Stimulation test: can destroy parts of the brain to see effect or stimulate nerves with electrodes  (Dr. Penfield- famous neuroscientists) – mapped motor and sensory areas Broca’s aphasia: could understand, but not speak Dorsal Stream: action (D.A) Ventral Stream: perception (V.P) Single-…

Brain Structure: Depolarization & Neurotransmitters

Neurons: constructive unit of the nervous system; interconnected like electrical circuits Made up of: Soma (cell body): contains nucleus, keeps nerve cells alive (grey matter) Dendrites: receiving portion of nerve cell- receiving end of cell Axon: sends impulses away from the cell (white matter) Dendrites and axons are all interconnected; vary in shape and size…

Mining: Economic, Environmental, Types

Minerals are non-renewable resources found all over the world The Canadian Shield is the source of many of our mineral deposits Minerals can be divided into three groups: Metallic (copper, nickel, uranium, gold, etc) Fossil Fuels (coal, oil, natural gas) Industrial (stone, diamonds, salt, potash) Environmental Issues Mining can cause air pollution, acid precipitation, and…

Softwood, Hardwood, Shelterwood, Selective Cutting Forestry

Softwood Forests: coniferous trees (cone-bearing:  fir, pine, spruce) make up 66% of Canada’s forests Hardwood Forests: deciduous trees (lose leaves every year:  birch, maple) make up 12% of Canada’s forests Commercial Forests Trees are harvested to make a profit exists in warmer, wetter areas where trees grow quickly British Columbia, Alberta Non-commercial Forests Not profitable…

Canada’s Aboriginal Communities

Key Terms Aboriginal Peoples: Descendents of Canada’s original inhabitants Treaty: An official agreement between the federal government and the First Nations – Aboriginal people give up their land rights (except for reserves) and accept treaty money/government assistance Reserve: Area of land set aside for status Indians Assimilate: To lose your culture and adopt the culture…

Eating Disorder: Anorexia Nervosa

Definition An eating disorder characterized by the refusal or inability to eat which creates a state of self-starvation. Characteristics Victims have a severe distortion of body image and extreme concern about appearances.  Use voluntary starvation, excessive exercise and diet pills to try and achieve idealized body proportions. Have an obsession with food and calories. Physical…

Biotic Relationships: Commensalism, Niche, Parasitism

Niche An organism’s ecological ROLE in the environment (NOT HABITAT!) All components of lifestyle and how they affect other organisms Three Types of Symbiosis Mutualism both species benefit Commensalism one species benefits, the other is unaffected Parasitism one species benefits, the other is harmed Lichen Lichen is really two organisms: algae and fungus. The fungus…