Biological Macromolecules: Carbohydrates

A biological macromolecule is defined as a large molecule made up of smaller organic molecules, known as monomers. There are four classes of biological macromolecules, one of them being carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are made of three base elements; Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen in a 1:2:1 ration. There are three different classes of carbohydrates; monosaccharides, disaccharides, and…

Polypropylene: Properties, Uses, Dangers

Physical Properties Amorphous Density: 0.85 g/cm3 [1] Crystalline Density: 0.95 g/cm3  [2] Melting Point of 320°F (160°C) Doesn’t Soak up water (good for uses around moisture) Chemical Properties Very strong against corrosion; doesn’t react with chemicals like alkaline substances, acids, etc. Low flammability Poor UV resistance Structural Formula Functional Groups Polypropylene contains a carbon backbone…

Differences and Similarities Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration

Two Types of Anaerobic Respiration Lactic Acid Fermentation Reactants: Pyruvate and NADH Products: NAD+ and lactate (lactic acid) Occurs in Muscle cells and micro-organisms Alcohol Fermentation Reactants: Pyruvate Products: Ethanol and CO2 (waste) Occurs in Yeasts and some bacteria Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration Similarities Both processes begin with the breakdown of sugar (glucose) Both processes…

Protein Purification

It is often necessary to obtain a preparation containing protein molecules of only a single type (a “pure protein”); eg. for medical use or scientific study. With such preparations, one may determine 3D structure, binding affinities, or determine the amino acid sequence.  Obtaining a pure protein is generally challenging because there are thousands of proteins…

Protein Structures: Primary, Secondary, Tertiary, Quaternary

Proteins are the largest and most varied class of biological molecules, and they show the greatest variety of structures.  Many have intricate three-dimensional folding patterns that result in a compact form, but others do not fold up at all (“natively unstructured proteins”) and exist in random conformations. The function of proteins depends on their structure,…

Cardiovascular System: Structure & Function

The cardiovascular system or circulatory system is a system which moves nutrients, gases and wastes between cells, helps fight diseases, and transports blood throughout the body (Circulatory System). The main components of the human cardiovascular system include the heart, blood, and various blood vessels. There are several different circuits contained in the cardiovascular system. One…

Bonding Capacity: Rules & Exceptions

–          Bonding capacity is an important chemical property for elements –          All members of the Alkali Metals have one extra electron and need to give it away –          Alkaline Earth Metals have two extra electrons that they must get rid of –          Halogens need to acquire an electron along with chalcogens –          Alkaline Earth will…

Effects of temperature and pH on cell permeability & effects of substrate concentration on enzymes in proteins lab answers

Abstract Proteins are very complex structures and have many variables that affect their function. This lab examined some of those variables. For the first part beef liver, which contains the enzyme catalase, was added to solutions of different concentrations of the substrate hydrogen peroxide. The second and third sections tested the effects of temperature and…