Speciation: Prezygotic and Postzygotic Barriers

Species: Latin word meaning “kind” Speciation: The origin of new species Macroevolution: The evolutionary changes above the species level eg. Appearance of feathers during the evolution of birds from one set of dinosaurs Anagenesis – one species over time becomes another species Cladogenesis– one species, over time, splits and becomes two species Morphogensis– look at…

Cellular Membranes: Fluid Mosaic of Lipids and Proteins

Selective Permeability: Allows some substances to cross it more easily than others. A phospholipid is an amphipathic molecule, meaning is has both a hydrophilic region and a hydrophobic region. Fluid Mosaic Model: The membrane is a fluid structure with a “mosaic” of various proteins embedded in or attached to a double layer (bilayer) of phospholipids.…

Investigation Behind Alleged Vaccinations Causing Autism

Over the past few years, Autism Spectrum Disorder has been on the rise in North America and the reasoning behind this increase has been studied greatly. Autism Spectrum Disorder, otherwise known as ASD, is characterized by the presence of chronic inflammatory disease and loss of acquired cognitive function, possibly due to absorption of vitamins or…

Biology: The Evolution of populations

Microevolution: The change in the genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation Mendel’s model: the particulate hypothesis of inheritance Quantitative characteristics: characteristics of a population that vary along continuum. Eg. Fur length in mammals Population genetics: study of how populations change genetically over time. Modern synthesis: a comprehensive theory of evolution that integrated…

Double Displacement Reactions: Forming Precipitate Lab Answers

Introduction In this lab, double replacement reactions between compounds were done in order to determine the equation and description of a new substance. During the lab, each participant was given drop bottles, spot plates. The drop bottles contained different compounds which were dropped into the spot plates and mixed together. Compounds were combined together and…

Metabolism & Enzyme Regulation

Metabolism is the combined sum of the chemical reactions that occur in living organisms. Metabolism is traditionally divided into catabolism, or the breaking down of large molecules into smaller ones, and anabolism, or the combining of small molecules to make larger ones. Metabolic pathways are coordinated series of reactions, catalyzed by enzymes and designed to…

Biological Forms of Energy and Reducing Power

Living organisms carry out a diverse set of tasks, such as building and maintaining physical structures, moving, synthesizing macromolecules, maintaining electrochemical gradients, and maintaining a constant body temperature. All of these processes require energy. One fundamental problem living organisms face is how to obtain energy to carry out these tasks. When considered at their most…

Lipids and Biological Membranes

All cells are enclosed by a membrane composed of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. Eucaryotic cells also have internal membranes that divide the cell into different compartments. Biological membranes have several important functions, including: They separate the contents of a cell or organelle from the surrounding environment. They control import and export of molecules (e.g., nutrients,…

Cellular Organelles & Structures

Organelle Structure Function Nucleus -classified as eukaryotic or prokaryotic depending on whether or not it has a membrane bound-Heredity or genetic information is organized into threadlike structures called chromosomes.-contains DNA-composed of nucleic acids and proteins – control centre of the cell – directs all cell activity-directs other cell activities. Cell Membrane -composed of proteins and…