### Significant Digits Rules

The number of significant digits in an answer to a calculation will depend on the number of significant digits in the given data, as discussed in the rules below. Approximate calculations (order-of-magnitude estimates) always result in answers with only one or two significant digits. When are Digits Significant? Non-zero digits are always significant. Thus, 22…

### What is the Coriolis Effect? How does Coriolis Effect work?

The earth makes one complete rotation on its axis every 24 hours. An object on the equator travels the circumference of the globe (approximately 40,000 km) each day. Objects at the Poles simply rotate around a vertical axis but don’t move in space. The distance traveled per day (and velocity of rotation) decreases with increasing…

### What is Humidity? Water in the Air!

Humidity is the measure of how much water vapour is in the air and is measured using a hygrometer. When humidity is low (therefore little water vapour in the air), moisture on our skin evaporates easily making us feel comfortable. When humidity is high (therefore a large amount of water vapour in the air), moisture…

### PROFESSIONAL FORECASTING AND TECHNOLOGY

–      People who study weather and make weather forecasts are called meteorologists. –      Meteorologists use advanced technologies like satellites, weather balloons, radar, and computers to forecast weather. CHANGING TECHNOLOGIES –      Before 1980, weather forecasts were only accurate for one day due to a lack of technology. –      Now, weather forecasts are usually accurate for 3-5…

### Forecasting and Measuring Weather

–      Forecasting weather can be difficult because there are many factors involved in weather such as the motion of air and water masses. –      Weather forecasters (meteorologists) use complex computer models, weather instruments, and observations of weather patterns to predict the weather. –      However, through careful observation, weather can be predicted by any individual. –     …

### Extreme Weather: Thunderstorms, Tornadoes, Hurricanes, Blizzards, Floods

THUNDERSTORMS –      Thunderstorms are the most common type of storm. –      These bring heavy rain, thunder, lightning, hail, and the odd tornado. –      Two conditions must exist for a thunderstorm to form: Moisture is needed to form clouds and rain. Warm air must be pushed up in the atmosphere to form large cumulus clouds –     …

### Regional Weather

REGIONAL WEATHER –      Even though weather is affected by large weather systems moving across Canada, weather can also be affected by the make-up of the local environment (example: living near a lake or mountain). –      We’re going to be looking at five factors that affect regional (local) weather. THERMALS –      Most winds are caused by…

### Fetal Pig Dissection Manual

Procedure Part 1 – External Anatomy Identify and record the 4 main body segments Examine the head of your pig Note the eyes. Each eye is protected by three eyelids! The third eyelid is the nictitating membrane – a small mass of tissue in the corner of each eye. Part 2 – Internal Anatomy Be…

### Mapping Skills – What you need to know!

There a 6 essential features needed to create maps. – MUST HAVES Title:  A title should tell the reader both what the map is about and where the map is depicting.  It should be located at the top of a map, in large print, inside the border of the map. eg.  Land Use in Mississauga,…

### Incomplete Dominance or Codominance

Incomplete Dominance – there is an interaction between 2 alleles in the homozygous form – alleles are semi – or incompletely dominant and act together to yield an intermediate heterozygote – usually phenotypically between the two homozygote Codominance – when definite product or substance controlled by each allele is identified ex. of incomplete dominance: Andalusian…

### The Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR): Cloning DNA in the Test Tube

The polymerase chain reaction is a technique for quickly “cloning” a particular piece of DNA in the test tube (rather than in living cells like E. coli). Thanks to this procedure, one can make virtually unlimited copies of a single DNA molecule even though it is initially present in a mixture containing many different DNA…

### Oxygen/ Carbon Transport

– inhale – oxygen travels down the bronchi and bronchioles – into the alveoli – oxygen strikes the moist coating of the alveolar wall – dissolves in this liquid –  moves by diffusion through the cells of the alveoli, and into the cells of the capillaries – enters the red blood cells which will transport…

### Respiratory Disorders: Asthma, Bronchitis, Emphysema, Cystic Fibrosis

Asthma – results in contraction of smooth muscle that surrounds airways – makes breathing difficult – allergic reaction – treat with bronchodilators – causes airways to dilate (increase in diameter) Bronchitis – inflammation of bronchial lining + overproduction of mucous and frequent coughing – related to smoking and other irritants (air pollution etc) – increased…

### Disease & Defense Against Disease

Pathogen – a disease causing organisms – May be: – viral (HIV, chicken pox) – bacterial (TB, strep) – fungal (athletes foot) – Protozoan (malaria = plasmodium) – Flatworm – Roundworm How to get infected? – airborne; waterborne; food; insect transmission; STI; skin Barriers to infection – skin, mucous membranes Specific defenses – production of…

### What is Evolution?

Evolution describes the changes in the gene pool of a species over time.  These changes are the results of mutations, natural selection and genetic drift. Often populations produce more offspring than the environment can support; in other words, they often exceed the carrying capacity.  Over-production of offspring leads to intraspecific competition and survival of the…

### The Hardy Weinberg Principle

Genetics Definitions Genes: portion of the DNA molecule that codes for a particular protein. Loci: location in the DNA molecule of the gene Alleles: forms of a gene Homozygous: paired alleles are identical Heterozygous: paired alleles are different Genotype: set of all alleles (i.e. genetic expression) Phenotype: all observable traits (i.e. physical expression) Genome: The…

### Magnetism & Electromagnetism

Electric Current (the movement of electrons) in a wire can produce a force at a distance (a field) on metals made of any combination of Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt.  This is an electromagnet. All neutral atoms have electrons moving in orbits.  Some atoms (Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt) have an electron arrangement that act like tiny…

### Dna: Structure and Function

DNA or nucleic acid is a polymer of nucleotides.  A nucleotide consists of 3 molecules: a 5-carbon sugar (pentose)  either deoxyribose (in DNA) or ribose (in RNA) a phosphate attached at the #5 carbon of the sugar an organic or nitrogenous base – a nitrogen containing ring structure – attached at the #1 carbon of…

### Isomers: Structure and Function

In chemistry, isomers are compounds with the same molecular formula but different structural formulas. The word is derived from the Greek ισομερης, isomerès; isos = “equal”, méros = “part”. There are many different classes of isomers, like stereoisomers, enantiomers, geometrical isomers (see chart below). Isomers do not necessarily share similar properties, unless they also have…

### Unique Properties of Water

Water is a unique substance essential to life. It is the most abundant molecule in any cell. The human body is 55-78% composed of water. 1. Polar Molecule – A polar covalent bond is formed between oxygen and hydrogen. The oxygen atom is slightly negative and the hydrogen is slightly positive due to unequal sharing…