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– results in contraction of smooth muscle that surrounds airways – makes breathing difficult
– allergic reaction
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– inflammation of bronchial lining + overproduction of mucous and frequent coughing
– related to smoking and other irritants (air pollution etc)
– increased mucous production – blocks airways and reduces respiratory efficiency
– can treat with bronchodilators
– associated with chronic bronchitis
– difficult for air to pass through and reach alveoli
– cilia no longer work – do not filter debris – debris builds up in air tubes – causes constriction of bronchioles – less air gets to alveoli
– air pressure builds up and lungs appear inflated -walls of alveoli tear and become damaged – decreases surface area for gas exchange – breathing rate increases to compensate – heart must also work harder than normal
– autosomal recessive genetic disorder
– abnormally thick mucous blocks airways – not easily removed by cilia
– excess mucous leads to recurrent lung infections – persistent coughing, wheezing
– used to insulate buildings
– can lead to lung cancer
Silica – major component of rocks and soil
– irritates respiratory tract
– cilia stop beating
-increased mucous production
– second hand smoke has higher concentration of substances than first hand smoke