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- supplies oxygen to cells and removes carbon dioxide
- defending the body against invasion of microorganisms
- control the body’s blood pH
Ventilation (breathing) > inhalation and exhalation; take in oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide
External Respiration > the exchange of gases between the alveoli and the blood
Internal Respiration > exchange of gases between the blood and tissue cells
|Nasal cavity||– lined with capillaries; warm air to 37°C- secrete mucus; moisten and filter air|
– lined with cilia; filter out debris in the air
|– warms, moistens and filters air entering the respiratory system|
|Pharynx||– path that connects nasal cavity to the trachea|
|Epiglottis||– a tiny flap of connective tissue||– prevents food from entering the trachea during swallowing- prevents air from entering the stomach when breathing in|
|Larynx||– made up of cartilage- contains the vocal cords; two highly elastic folds||– to produce sound for communication|
|Trachea||– a hollow tube surrounded by tough, flexible C-shaped cartilage rings- lined with cilia|
– lined with mucus secreting cells
|– allows air to pass from the pharynx into the lungs- cartilage rings prevent the trachea from collapsing and provide it with support|
|Lung||– composed of the bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli||– the main organs of the respiratory system|
|Bronchi||– branch out of the trachea- hollow tubes surrounded by cartilage rings|
– lined with cilia and mucus secreting cells
|– to carry the air into the lungs|
|Bronchioles||– branch out of the bronchi- large bronchioles secrete mucous and are lined with cilia||– to decrease in size and carry air to the alveoli|
|Alveoli||– clusters of tiny hollow air sacs; the ends of the smallest bronchioles- surrounded by an extensive network of capillaries|
– very small structures with very high surface area
|– are the sites of gas exchange|
- wall of alveoli and wall of capillaries come together for form a respiratory membrane
- gas exchange occurs across the respiratory membrane
- exchange of gases (O2 & CO2) between the alveoli & the blood occurs by simple diffusion
- diffusion requires a concentration gradient
- the surface of the alveoli must be moist so that diffusion can occur
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