Inheritance of Different in Prokaryotes
- Mutations arise, move from donors to recipients, incorporated to recipients through recombination
- Transposition: some genes are mobile and can be transferred to another site, and then another host
- Transformation: the conversion of the heredity type of a cell by the uptake of DNA released by the breakdown of another cell
- Conjugation: the process by which a copy of part of the DNA of a donor cell moves through the cytoplasmic bridge into the recipient cell where genetic recombination can occur
- Transduction: the process in which DNA is transferred from donor to recipient bacterial cells by an infecting bacteriophage, the cell is then burst open by a virus
Inheritance of Different in Eukaryotes
- Genes from two different organisms are being brought into close proximity for a fertilization event
- Homologues have different alleles arising from mutation
- Those alleles can be brought together into close proximity as a result of fertilization and create a zygote
- Zygote will divide and differentiate into a multicellular being
- Females some cells will be sex cells and recombine UNTIL birth, males some cells will be sex cells and will recombine at sexual maturity
- Independent alignment of homologues in metaphase of meiosis one, another mechanism to generate different
- Meiosis always creates diverse products no matter whether they are spores or immediate gametes
- Random fertilization: Different gametes from one parent’s and others from another parent, when combined in random combinations there are staggeringly diverse populations of offspring
- In different life cycles mitosis and meiosis occur at different stages to ensure diversity
- Non-disjunction: Results when homologues fail to separate in meiosis one (bad difference), mistake during first division of meiosis and homologues do not disjoin, products of meiosis with wrong number of chromosomes and therefore they are called aneuploid
- Misdivision: Results when chromatids fail to separate in meiosis II
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