|HORMONE||GLAND ORIGIN||TARGET TISSUE||FUNCTION|
|Adrenocorticotropic||Pituitary gland (anterior)||Adrenal cortex||Triggers secretion of hydrocortisone from the adrenal gland|
|Growth hormone||Pituitary gland (anterior)||Throughout body||Stimulates growth and development|
|Follicle-stimulating hormone||Pituitary gland (anterior)||Sex glands||Stimulates female egg maturation and male sperm production|
|Luteinizing hormone||Pituitary gland (anterior)||Sex glands||Stimulates female ovulation and male secretion of testosterone|
|Prolactin||Pituitary gland (anterior)||Mammary glands||Stimulates milk production in the breasts after childbirth|
|Thyroid-stimulating hormone||Pituitary gland (anterior)||Thyroid gland||Triggers secretion of thyroid hormones|
|Melanocyte-stimulating hormone||Pituitary gland (anterior)||Melanin-producing cells||Controls skin pigmentation|
|Antidiuretic hormone||Pituitary gland (posterior)||Kidneys||Regulates water retention and blood pressure|
|Oxytocin||Pituitary gland (posterior)||Uterus
|Triggers contraction of the uterus during labor
Stimulates milk letdown for breast-feeding after childbirth
|Melatonin||Pineal gland||Brain (Suprachiasmatic nuclei)||Regulates circadian rhythm (awake/sleep patterns) and prevent jet lag|
|Calcitonin||Thyroid gland||Bones||Controls the level of calcium in the blood by depositing it in the bones|
|Thyroid hormone||Thyroid gland||Throughout body||Increases the body’s metabolic rate; promotes normal growth and development|
|Parathyroid hormone||Parathyroid glands||Bones, intestines, and kidneys||Regulates calcium level in blood|
|Thymosin||Thymus||White blood cells||Promotes the growth and development of white blood cells, helping the body fight infection|
|Aldosterone||Adrenal gland||Kidneys||Regulates sodium and potassium levels in the blood to control blood pressure|
|Hydrocortisone||Adrenal gland||Throughout body||Plays key role in stress response; increases blood glucose levels and mobilizes fat stores; reduces inflammatation|
|Epinephrine||Adrenal gland||Muscles and blood vessels||Increases blood pressure, heart and metabolic rate, and blood sugar levels; dilates blood vessels. Also released during exercise|
|Norepinephrine||Adrenal gland||Muscles and blood vessels||Increases blood pressure and heart rate; constricts blood vessels|
|Glucagon||Pancreas||Liver||Stimulates the breakdown of glycogen (stored carbohydrate) into glucose (blood sugar); regulates glucose blood level|
|Insulin||Pancreas||Throughout body||Regulates blood glucose levels; increases storage of glycogen; facilitates glucose intake by body cells|
|Estrogen||Ovaries||Female reproductive system||Causes sexual development and growth; maintains proper functioning of female reproductive system|
|Prepares uterus for pregnancy|
|Testosterone||Testes||Throughout body||Causes sexual development and growth spurt; maintains proper functioning of male reproductive system|
|Erythropoietin||Kidney||Bone Marrow||Produces red blood cells|
Cite this article as: William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team), "Major Hormones: Origin, Target, Function," in SchoolWorkHelper, 2019, https://schoolworkhelper.net/major-hormones-origin-target-function/.
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