- Neurons: constructive unit of the nervous system; interconnected like electrical circuits
- Made up of:
- Soma (cell body): contains nucleus, keeps nerve cells alive (grey matter)
- Dendrites: receiving portion of nerve cell- receiving end of cell
- Axon: sends impulses away from the cell (white matter)
- Dendrites and axons are all interconnected; vary in shape and size
- Glial cells: hold neurons in place; make nutrients, absorb waste
- Tripatite Synapse: synapse between dendrite , axons, synapse
- Blood-brain barrier: glial cells that prevent waste from entering the brain
- Neurons do two important things: generate electricity and release chemicals
- Neurons= batteries; inner structure in salty solution encased in inner membrane; VERY CONDUCTIVE
- Positive Na, more positive K on outside= resting potential: -70mV (polarized)
- Action Potential: sudden reversal of voltage along neuron membrane to cause depolarization (-70mV – +40mV)
- Graded potentials: incoming stimulation not strong enough to complete depolarize a cell
- *MUST MEET ACTION POTENTIAL THRESHOLD to cause action potential -> depolarization
- All-or-none law: neurons must fire at max intensities or not at all
- Ion channels: graded potentials move ions through these channels (Na= +) which when done enough can depolarize the cell (action potential threshold: -55mV)
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1) Negative charge inside of membrane (due to K ions) positive charge on outside (Na), more negative than positive.
2) Action potential causes the sodium channels to open and Na ions flow into inner membrane; K+ ions flow out.
3) Sodium-potassium pump depolarize cell during refractory period; 2:3 Na:K pumped into cell
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- Actions potential do not vary but the rate/ number of neuron stimulated will result in high-intensity stimulation
- Axons covered by myelin sheath= insulation/ protective
- Nodes of Ranvier: section of axon where myelin sheath are not present or absent. Impulses hope along these nodes to get better conductivity and speed.
- Synapse: connection between neurons (axons and dendrites)
- Neurotransmission occurs between axon and dendrites in synaptic cleft
- Synthesis- chemicals have made within the neuron
- Storage- these chemicals are stored within the synaptic vesicles
- Release- chemicals move across the synaptic cleft from presynaptic neuron (axon) to post synaptic neuron (dendrites)
- Binding: the vesicle bind to the receptor sites on the neurons. These chemicals will (a) depolarize the neuron by exciting it or (b) hyperpolarize the neuron and inhibit it.
- Deactivation: shuts off, is depolarized
- Exciting Chemicals: Glutamate, Acetylcholine, Norepinephrine, Dopamine
- Inhibiting Chemicals: GABA, Serotonin, Dopamine
- Acetylcholine -> (motor movement, sleep, dreaming, muscle) Alzheimer’s disease (lack of)
- Botulism: blocked Ach, paralysis
- Dopamine -> Parkinson’s disease (lack of) can be treated; also treats schizophrenia (overload)/ delusions
- Serotonin (5HT) -> sensitivity to it linked to depression (due to undersupply of it)
- Endorphins -> reduce pain
- Neuromodulators -> widespread effect
- Drugs can mimic some neurotransmitters (block uptake, bind at stop TP)
- Sensory Neurons: sent info the brain/ spine
- Motor Neurons: send impulses from brain/ spine to muscles/ organs
- Interneurons: connective neurons
CNS: brain/ spine PNS: everything else
- Somatic Nervous system: voluntary movements (muscles, senses)
- Autonomic Nervous system: controls glands, heart, etc.
- Fight-or-Flight: Sympathetic: arousal to stress Parasympathetic: recovery from stress [HOMOEOSTATIS]