- The largest animal phylum- 1 million species of crabs, shrimp, spiders, scorpions, and insects make up this phylum
- Have jointed appendages; segmented bodies
- Exoskeletons made of chitin
- Molt; have heads with many sensory organs.
- Simple and complex eyes that detect only light intensity and form images
- Antennae that smell chemical substances in the environment
- Sexual Reproduction- where sperm is released inside the female’s body, not in water.
- Larvae of many species develop into very different adults, a process called metamorphosis.
- Can develop resistance to insecticides- demonstrates how quickly they adapt to a changing environment.
- Short generations and many offspring increase the chance that random mutations will produce a few resistant individuals
- Arthropods are segmented animals with jointed appendages and an exoskeleton
- Include horseshoe crabs and arachnids, such as spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks
Millipedes and Centipedes
- Are identified by the number of jointed legs per body segment
– Are nearly all aquatic
– Include crabs, shrimps, and barnacles
- Insects are the most diverse group of arthropods
- Insects have a 3 -part body consisting of
- Head, thorax, and abdomen
- Three sets of legs
- Wings (most, but not all insects)
- Many insects undergo incomplete or complete metamorphosis
A. Order Orthoptera
- Grasshoppers, crickets, katydids, and locusts
- B. Order Odonata
- Dragonflies and damselflies
C. Order Hemiptera
- Bedbugs, plant bugs, stinkbugs, and water striders
- D. Order Coleoptera
E. Order Lepidoptera
- Moths and butterflies
- F. Order Diptera
- Flies, fruit flies, houseflies, gnats, mosquitoes
G. Order Hymenoptera
- Ants, bees, and wasps
- Sea stars and sea urchins.
- Reproduce sexually.
- Sperm and eggs are released in water, where they join and fertilize
- Movement by seawater into and out of a system of internal tubes.
- The water vascular system – has suction cup-like tube feet used for respiration and locomotion
- Vertebrates-fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
- Full development of organ systems
- Mostly sexual reproduction
- 4 defining characteristics:
- The stiff dorsal rod helps to organize the embryo’s development.
- The central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) is tubular
- Their sides have slits just behind the head. These pharyngeal slits (pharynx means “throat”) become gill slits of adult fish. In air-breathing chordates, they develop into various organs such as internal parts of the ears
- They have a tail; in humans, it’s the tailbone, or coccyx, which curls internally.
- Lampreys are vertebrates that lack hinged jaws and paired fins
- Jawed vertebrates with gills and paired fins include sharks, ray-finned fishes, and lobe-fins
- Have a flexible skeleton made of cartilage
- Include sharks and rays
- Ray-finned Fishes
- A skeleton reinforced with a hard matrix of calcium phosphate
- Operculi that move water over the gills
- A buoyant swim bladder
- Have muscular fins supported by bones
- The first tetrapods—vertebrates with 2 pairs of limbs allowing movement on land
- Include frogs, toads, and salamanders
- Most amphibian embryos and larvae must develop in the water
- Amniotes — tetrapods with a terrestrially adapted egg
- Terrestrial adaptations include
- Waterproof scales
- A shelled, amniotic egg
– Dinosaurs were the most diverse reptiles to inhabit land
- Largest animals ever to inhabit the land
- They may have been endothermic, producing their own body heat
- Considered feathered reptiles with adaptations for flight
- Birds thought to have evolved from small, two-legged dinosaurs called theropods
– Birds are reptiles that have
- Wings, feathers, endothermic metabolism, and many other adaptations related to flight such as light bones
- Amniotes that have hair, produce milk and are endothermic
- Hair, which insulates their bodies
- Mammary glands, which produce milk
- Monotremes lay eggs
- The embryos of marsupials and eutherians are nurtured by the placenta within the uterus
- Marsupial offspring complete development attached to the mother, usually inside a pouch
- Eutherians- placental mammal complete development before birth
- The End of Animalia Notes!
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