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– All members of the Alkali Metals have one extra electron and need to give it away
– Alkaline Earth Metals have two extra electrons that they must get rid of
– Halogens need to acquire an electron along with chalcogens
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– Alkaline Earth will bond together with halogens to form a stable molecule
– For transition metals, the valence will be stable but the outermost shell will not be filled
Exceptions to this rule:
– elements such as copper, iron and tin can have different valences and form different combinations
– Copper can have a valence of +1 or +2
– Can form CuCl or CuCl2
– Alfred Stock formed a way to distinguish these different states
-In a stock system metal is named first followed by the charge of the metal in brackets
– Tin can have a valence of +2 or +4
– Tin can then form a stable SnO or SnO2
Exceptions to Stock System: