–          Bonding capacity is an important chemical property for elements

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–          All members of the Alkali Metals have one extra electron and need to give it away

–          Alkaline Earth Metals have two extra electrons that they must get rid of

–          Halogens need to acquire an electron along with chalcogens

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–          Alkaline Earth will bond together with halogens to form a stable molecule

–          For transition metals, the valence will be stable but the outermost shell will not be filled

Exceptions to this rule:

–          elements such as copper, iron and tin can have different valences and form different combinations

–          Copper can have a valence of +1 or +2

–          Can form CuCl or CuCl2

–          Alfred Stock formed a way to distinguish these different states

Stock System:

-In a stock system metal is named first followed by the charge of the metal in brackets

– Tin can have a valence of +2 or +4

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– Tin can then form a stable SnO or SnO2

Exceptions to Stock System:

Element Symbol Valence
Copper Cu +1, +2
Iron Fe +2, +3
Lead Pb +2, +4
Tin Sn +2, +4

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