– Bonding capacity is an important chemical property for elements

– All members of the Alkali Metals have one extra electron and need to give it away

– Alkaline Earth Metals have two extra electrons that they must get rid of

– Halogens need to acquire an electron along with chalcogens

– Alkaline Earth will bond together with halogens to form a stable molecule

– For transition metals, the valence will be stable but the outermost shell will not be filled

Exceptions to this rule:

– elements such as copper, iron and tin can have different valences and form different combinations

– Copper can have a valence of +1 or +2

– Can form CuCl or CuCl2

– Alfred Stock formed a way to distinguish these different states

Stock System:

-In a stock system metal is named first followed by the charge of the metal in brackets

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– Tin can have a valence of +2 or +4

– Tin can then form a stable SnO or SnO2

Exceptions to Stock System:

ElementSymbolValence
CopperCu+1, +2
IronFe+2, +3
LeadPb+2, +4
TinSn+2, +4

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Cite this article as: William Anderson (Schoolworkhelper Editorial Team), "Bonding Capacity: Rules & Exceptions," in SchoolWorkHelper, 2019, https://schoolworkhelper.net/bonding-capacity-rules-exceptions/.
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