**Observations**

Volume and Temperature | Trial |

T1 (temperature of the air in the flask of boiling water in Celsius) | 99ᵒC |

T2( temperature of air in cooled flask in Celsius) | 7ᵒC |

A(volume of water in flask at T2) | 73 mL |

V1(volume of air in flask at T1) | 250 mL |

V2( Volume of air in flask at T2) | 177 mL |

**Analysis**

When measuring the volume of air in the flask at the first temperature, a volume of 250 mL was recorded, known as V1. The temperature of the air in the flask in boiling water was recorded as 99ᵒC, known as T2. In order to find the correct calculations, 99ᵒC has to be converted to Kelvin by adding 273. The first temperature in Kelvin is 372K.

The value of V1/T1, can be found by putting 250/372. This comes to a total of **0.67**. The volume of the air in the flask of the second temperature was 177 mL, known as V2. The temperature of the air in the cooled flask is 7ᵒC, known as T2. 7ᵒC has to be converted to Kelvin by adding 273 which comes to a final total of 280K.

The value of V2/T2, found by putting 177/280 comes to a total of **0.63**. The near equality in numbers can be attributed to Charles Law. Charles Law states that “as temperature increases, so does the volume of a gas sample when the pressure is held constant”. The result of V1/T1 and V2/T2 were very close to each other.

This is due to the fact that this experiment was done in a closed system. In Charles Law, if there is a closed system the two ratios should have equal numbers. This is why it can be expected for the ratio numbers to be very equal.

**Conclusion**

The final value of absolute zero for the lab was 55K. This was a bit off from the accepted value of 0K or -273ᵒC. These values could be different for a variety of reasons.

First of all, there could have been an error in the timing in allowing the flask to cool. If the lab was incorrectly timed then the correct temperatures may not have been achieved. There was also a possibility of error in terms of not maintaining the time of boiling for long enough as well. If the boiling was done for too long and the cooling was not done long enough then there was a high probability that the results may have been construed.

Another possible error is that the pinch clamp was not correctly secured around the flask. If the pinch clamp is not secured properly then water cannot be kept out of the flask and there is no correct volume. Another mistake that could cause problems is if the flask is not raised correctly when submerged in water. When the flask is raised this equalizes the pressure. If this is not done correctly then the pressure is not equalized and Charles Law no longer applies.

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during the heating does the air flow into or out of the flask? why?

*insufficient sorry

Well, that prediction may not exactly be specifically true, Bethannnnnnn. There is very little evidence of his recordings and although the same experiment has been repeated by other scientists. I respect your opinion but there is sufficient data.

Charles’s Law

What was his aim?

He wanted to find out how the volume of gas changes temperature with a fixed amount of gas pressure. He also wanted to determine absolute zero.

What was his experiment?

The same amount of gas was trapped in a glass tube (sealed at one end). To change the temperature, he put it into a water bath. By changing the temperature of the water, he could change the temperature of the gas.

What happened?

He predicted that as the volume of gas increases, the temperature would increase. He plotted V (volume) against T (temperature)