Route: Indian Ocean

Advantages: Changeable, predictable monsoon wids lead to reliable schedules; great variety and amound of goods can be carried via ship (emporium trading); seaborne trade usually faster than land routes

Geographical Scope: East Africa, Arabia, Inida, S.E. Asia; canal between Red Sea and Nile would eventually connect Mediterranean

Commerce: Aromatic (incense), spices, gold, and “thousands of other things” (including wild animals)

Political Systems: African kingdoms, Indian empires and kingdoms, Arabian cheifdoms, Mediterranean empires

Route: Silk Roads across Eurasia

Advantages: Less inestment needed to embark on small-scale trading expeditions; more cultural contacts between vast different peoples; widespread trade of high-value items

Geographical Scope: China, Bactria, Sogdiana, Persia, Mesopotamia, Anatolia, Caspian/Black Sea, Mediterranean

Commerce: Spices, silk, gold, silver, cloth, horses, aromatics

Political Systems: Imperial China, Central Asian kingdoms, Egypt, nomadic tribes of Middle East, Perisan Empire, Roman Empire, Mediterranean city-states

Route: Medditerranean

Advantages: Relatively high population densities along the coastal Mediterranean provides more opportunities for trade, numerous ports; shorter distnaces, calmer waters than vat Indian Ocean routes.

Geographical Scope: Europe, North Africa, S.W. Asia, Black Sea, with Red Sea-Nile canal (later in history) connections to Arabia, Indian Ocean Route

Commerce: Grain, wine, olive oil, timber, metals

Political Systems: Greek city-states/colonies, Egypt, North African city-states, Roman Empire



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