Utilitarian Justification- conservation of nature is important because the environment, ecosystem, habitat, or species provides individuals (aka humans) with direst economic benefits.

Ecological Justification- conservation of nature is based on the knowledge that a species, ecological community, ecosystem, or the Earth’s biosphere provides specific function necessary to the persistence of our life.

Aesthetic Justification- conservation and protection of nature are made on the basis that nature is beautiful and that beauty is of profound importance and value to people.

Moral Justification- conservation of nature is important because aspects/ elements of the environment have a right to exist, independent of human desires; it’s a moral obligation to allow them to continue to persist.

Aldo Leopold’s- A Sand Country Almanac (1949)

  • All resources (plants, animals/ earth materials) have right to exist
  • Human should act as protectors, not conquerors of the planet
  • We are responsible for other individuals/ society’s behavior toward the environment
  • Moral responsibility to sustain nature for ourselves/ future generations

The implications of the land ethics are:

Land ethic asserts that entire species to survive; but that doesn’t necessarily individual animals or organisms- be realistic.

Another implication is that nature has an inherent importance to our survival and therefore it our moral responsibility to preserve it.

Our actions/ technology have the potential to greatly affect future generation; we must consider their rights when making environmental protocols and accords. Radioactive waste, long-term climate change, technology all effects the growing human population/ animal extinction, so we must take this into consideration and act accordingly.



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