• The social changes brought about by the Industrial Revolution were significant
    • The Industrial Revolution brought with it an increase in population and urbanization, as well as new social classesSocial Changes during Industrial Revolution Social Changes during Industrial Revolution
    • The bad living conditions in the towns can be traced to lack of good brick, the absence of building codes, and the lack of machinery for public sanitation.
    • The factory owners’ tendency to regard labourers as commodities and not as a group of human beings.
    • The Industrial Revolution created a new working class
    • The new class of industrial workers included all the men, women, and children labouring in the textile mills, pottery works, and mines
    • Wages were low, hours were long, and working conditions unpleasant and dangerous
    • Women and children regardless of where they worked, had the most exploitative working condition and the lowest rates of pay.
    • This is a picture of two children working in the mines.  They were small enough to fit into narrow space. These are often the conditions children worked in.

Conditions in City Life

  • People flooded into cities from the country side in hopes of finding jobs.
  • Exclusive neighborhoods were build for wealthy bourgeoisie, while the working poor was forced to live in the ghettos
  • The poor were forced to tolerate intrusions even at the most intimate times.
  • People were used to work and home being in the same place and it was normal for parents and children to work together
  • Working day ranged from 12 to 16 hours
  • As many as 8 to 10 people would share one room, families and single people of both gender would sleep together.
  • Houses were built in rows or in squares with a common courtyard, in which there might be a water tap and a common toilet.
  • There was little access to fresh air and little provision for clean water or removal of refuse, including human waste.
  • When production was in demand, workers would work extremely hard for a long hours.
  • When the market was slow, they worked at a more leisurely pace.
  • Employers imposed fines and penalties for lateness, for interruptions in work and for absenteeism

Social structure as a result of Industrial Revolution

  • Increase in standard of living eventually resulted from urbanization
  • Gap between wealthy and working class still remained enormous
  • Industrial and urban development made society more diverse and less unified
  • Diversity within middle class
  • Upper middle class: bankers, industrial leaders, large-scale commerce
  • Diversified middle class: businessmen, professionals, merchants, doctors and lawyers
  • Lower middle class: independent shopkeepers and small traders
  • Working class: about 80% of population
  • Many were peasants and hired hands (especially in Eastern Europe)
  • Less unified and homogenous compared to middle classes
  • Highly skilled workers were at the top of working class (about 15% of pop.)
  • Semi-skilled workers: carpentry, bricklaying, successful factory workers
  • Unskilled workers and domestic servants were at the bottom.

Changing family

  • Romantic love most important reason for marriage by 1850
  • After 1850 the work of most wives increasingly distinct and separate from their husbands.
  • Middle-class women begin to organize and resist their second-class status to husbands
  • Child rearing more child-centered with wife dominating the home domain.

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