Who were the Comanche?
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- A Native American tribe who lived in present-day Wyoming as part of the Shoshone tribe
- They later migrated into the southern Great Plains and had an advantage from their effective taming of horses
- Their survival depended on the buffalo hunt
Causes of Conflict
- Western expansion threatened the lifestyle of the Comanche and other tribes
- These settlers hunted buffalo commercially, and threatened the survival of the Comanche
- The Comanche fought to maintain their traditions
Salt Creek Massacre 1871
- The Medicine Lodge Treaty set reserves for tribes to hunt buffalo
- US government did not enforce it
- Comanche crossed into Salt Creek Prairie and killed 8 Texans in a passing wagon
- William Sheridan commanded an all-out attack against Plains Indians that led to future violence
Red River War 1874
- Capt. Ford led Texas Rangers and Indian allies against a Comanche village northwest of Antelope Hills.
- Iron Jacket challenged the Rangers. He was killed, and the village was captured.
- It was a victory for Texas, but violated federal laws pertaining to the sovereignty of Indian Territory.
Consequences of the War
- The Comanche and other Native tribes were thoroughly defeated
- Opened the Texas Panhandle to white settlement without Native resistance
- The Comanche were removed permanently from the buffalo plains, thus permanently ending their way of life