Who were the Comanche?

  • A Native American tribe who lived in present-day Wyoming as part of the Shoshone tribeComanche-Indians
  • They later migrated into the southern Great Plains and had an advantage from their effective taming of horses
  • Their survival depended on the buffalo hunt

Causes of Conflict

  • Western expansion threatened the lifestyle of the Comanche and other tribes
  • These settlers hunted buffalo commercially, and threatened the survival of the Comanche
  • The Comanche fought to maintain their traditions

Major Battles

Salt Creek Massacre 1871

  • The Medicine Lodge Treaty set reserves for tribes to hunt buffalo
  • US government did not enforce it
  • Comanche crossed into Salt Creek Prairie and killed 8 Texans in a passing wagon
  • William Sheridan commanded an all-out attack against Plains Indians that led to future violence

Red River War 1874

  • Comprised of a series of over 20 engagements between the US Army and the Southern Plains Indians
  • Isa-Tai of the Comanche tribe led 300 Indians to attack the Adobe Walls post
  • Comanche attacks catalyzed the US Army to remove Indians from the Red River areaComanche-Wars
  • Comanches were outlasted and surrendered

Antelope Hill

  • Capt. Ford led Texas Rangers and Indian allies against a Comanche village northwest of Antelope Hills.
  • Iron Jacket challenged the Rangers. He was killed, and the village was captured.
    • It was a victory for Texas, but violated federal laws pertaining to the sovereignty of Indian Territory.

Consequences of the War

  • The Comanche and other Native tribes were thoroughly defeated
  • Opened the Texas Panhandle to white settlement without Native resistance
  • The Comanche were removed permanently from the buffalo plains, thus permanently ending their way of life

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