- Facilitated the spread of Christianity throughout the Empire.
- Democracy plus Senate (Members represented sections of society)
- Ovid: Metamorphoses, Virgil: Aeneid, Cicero: Rhetorical works.
- Tacitus: Histories; Julius Caesar: Histories of Rome.
- Marcus Vitruvius Pollio: “De architectura,” deals with urban planning, building materials, temple construction, public and private buildings, and hydraulics, remained a classic until the Renaissance.
- Advanced urban planning, the arch and the dome.
- Colosseum, Circus Maximus, aqueducts.
- Art heavily influenced by Greek art. Often used Greek artists.
- Portraiture (Busts) reached highest developments.
- Latin, present in all Western languages and heavily used in the Sciences.
- Official language of the Catholic Church.