Hatshepsut

  • female ruler around
  • 1470 BCE
  • wore beard to symbolize power
  • husband was Tutmosis II
  • Tuthmosis III was her stepson
  • first powerful female leader
  • ruler in own right
  • peace & prosperity
  • expanded trade
  • built massive tomb & 2 obelisks
  • death-unknown

Tuthmosis III

  • inherited throne from father through stepmom
  • around 1450 BCE
  • training in military
  • “Napoleon of Egypt”
  • gained wealth because of military and conquering background
  • expanded empire to its greatest state

Akhenaton

  • aka Amenhotep IV
  • around 1350 BCE
  • changed god from Amon-Re to Aton
  • closed temples
  • new capital of Egypt Akhenaton (city)
  • oddly shaped head and pot belly (actually portrayed flaws in his art)
  • made monotheistic religion with Aton
  • responsible for decline of Egypt > neglected duties as so concerned with religion

Tutankhamum

  • son of Akhenaton
  • around 1334 BCE
  • aka Tuankaton
  • came to “power” age 9
  • age 18-dead
  • moved capital back to Thebes
  • restored polytheistic religion
  • Howard Carter discovered tomb in 1922
  • biggest find of tomb and treasures still intact
  • wasn’t really great pharaoh but b/c of find, we know more about him

Ramses II

  • around 1290 BCE
  • ruled for 67 years!
  • constructed many huge statues, buildings
  • ruled during Moses
  • used Jewish slave
  • last truly great pharaoh
  • last period of peace and stability
  • built more than any other king

Cleopatra

  • around 30 BCE
  • not of Egyptian lineage; from Ptolemy who was general in Alexander’s army (Greek)
  • last independent ruler of Egypt
  • seduced Caesar and then fell in love with Mark Antony
  • committed suicide with Antony with Octavian forces invaded Egypt
  • after her death Egypt ruled as Roman

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