Biological (Medical) Model
- The mind’s activity depends on the brain whose composition is genetically determined
- Still acknowledge influences of environment and learning
- Genetic influences on anxiety and depression
- Brain structure different in individuals with schizophrenia- process information differently
- Therapy: Pharmacological treatments (medication)
- Focuses on what people do rather than on brain structures and/or chemistry
- Behaviour is analyzed in terms of stimulus, response, and reinforcement.
o Their fear, their response to the fear, experience of relief leads to reinforcing the response to that certain fear.
- The aim is to discover what reinforcements sustain and undesirable behavior and then to alter those reinforcements.
- Therapy: Exposure
- Behavior results from complex attitudes, expectations, and motives rather than simple reinforcements.
- Individuals are taught to substitute their unrealistic thoughts with realistic ones and to test their assumptions.
- Emphasizes thoughts as well as unconscious emotions, ideas, and impulses
- Emphasizes the role of the past in shaping the present.
- Therapies: Interpersonal, humanistic, existential, experiential
- Typically emphasizes exposure as well as changing problematic patterns of thinking
- Typically involve- 10 individual or group sessions with a therapist plus homework
- Has been shown to produce significant improvements
- Has been combined with drug therapy
“Seeks to make conscious that which is unconscious.”