The geography of the Neanderthals domain was quite odd.  230,000 years ago Europe was filled with caves, marshes, and grasslands.  It was a very harsh and cold wilderness.  The Neanderthals were in existence right in the middle of the Ice Age, and although occasional warm periods would create subtropical conditions as far north as England for thousands of years, the glaciers would always return and the Neanderthals would always be forced south again.  The Neanderthals could be found as far north as England and as far south as Spain, from Gibralter to Uzbekistan.   Neanderthal bones have been found in the Neander Valley and Dusseldorf Germany, in Altamura, Italy and Vindija, Croatia.  These are major sites for the European caves the Neanderthals lived in.  Although the Neanderthals went to the southern tip of Italy, they never crossed the Mediterranean Sea to Africa.

They migrated from central Europe to central Asia to the Middle East and always came back.  Their main mode of moving around was on their feet, and they usually travelled in bands of no more than 30 people. The Neanderthals had broad noses, and scientists think this was to warm the cold air.  They also had thick browridges, receding chins, high foreheads, and their skulls sloped back over their brains.  They learned to hunt in groups in order to kill the bigger game.  The Neanderthals lived with modern humans for 10,000 years, but they didn’t change, and eventually it is believed the modern humans conquered them with their more advanced technology. Although not much is known about the Neanderthal’s culture, anthropologists have some ideas of how they lived their life. It is believed by many that the Neanderthals practiced cannibalism for a death ritual. There is evidence of this on the skulls and big bones of Neanderthals. There are cut marks and some bones have been broken open and are without marrow.  Why would they do this?  Maybe they liked the way their neighbors tasted, or maybe it was a ritual for a religion of theirs.  There is other evidence they have a religion.  One archaeologist found a carved and polished ivory tooth, and since it looked to have no purpose as a tool, it is most probably a spiritual object.  The bodies of people were found in a cave with flowers around them.  This also suggests some sort of religion. Scientists had always thought that the technology of the Neanderthals was “primitive”.  However, they have changed their minds.  “You need a lot of brains for flint knapping,” Jacques Pelegrin of the French Center for Archaeological Research.  Recent excavations show that Neanderthal tools required a high level of craftsmanship and mental ability.

During most of their existence, Neanderthals have what is called Mousterian technology- flaked tools (i.e. scrapers and points) and this remained unchanged for 100,000 years.  During the last few thousand years of their lives, they developed what is called Chatelperronian technology- hafted points and more complex. It was also thought that the Neanderthals couldn’t speak.  One theory is that they communicated through mental telepathy, due to the large brains.  Now though, anthropologists believe that the Neanderthals spoke at least a rudimentary language.  A hyoid bone (the voice box hangs from it in the back of the throat) was found in a body recently.  “They may not have had a language as complex as ours…. but at least they could talk to each other,” said Christopher Stringer, a paleoanthropologist at the Natural History Museum in London. The Neanderthals were plagued by injuries and disease, but there is evidence that they were cared for by the group.  They ate cave bears and aurochs and other big game, slicing off the skin with sharp flints.  The skins they cured and wore draped over their bodies, and they made buildings resembling teepees out of wood or mammoth bones and the hides of some animals. The Neanderthals had a compassionate side, something not expected from their big and squat appearance.

They cared for their sick and injured, and they had families, as a man, two women, and an infant were found buried together with personal decorations on them and pollen from wildflowers.  One thinks that bodies were also disposed of in large caves for housecleaning. Still, one of the biggest questions of Neanderthals today is what happened to them?  Nobody really knows. There are many theories, however. The Neanderthals inhabited Europe from about 230,000 to 30,000 years ago. About 40,000 years ago the modern humans arrived.  They lived peacefully side by side for 10,000 years and then all record of Neanderthal life ends. It is thought that the modern humans conquered and destroyed the Neanderthals with their advanced technology.  Or maybe the Neanderthals interbred with the modern humans and got slowly replaced, unable to compete. It is also possible that a natural disaster(like the Ice Age) caught them in the north and they were unable to leave, as they were surrounded by modern humans.  It is very surprising that there is no record of violence between the Neanderthals and the modern humans.

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