A prefix is something that is put before the word which changes its meaning or makes a new word.
If you can understand the meaning of the prefix, you can often work out the meaning of the word.
ab – means away from, e.g., absent.
ante – means before, e.g., antenatal.
anti – means opposite or against, e.g., anti-clockwise.
auto – means self, e.g., autobiography.
bi – means two or twice, e.g., bicycle.
bio – means life, e.g., biology.
circum – means around, e.g., circumference.
co – means together, e.g., collaborate.
de – means down or away, e.g., decrease.
dis – means not or apart, e.g., disappoint.
em/en – means take in, e.g., embrace/engage.
ex – means previous or out, e.g., exterior.
extra – means beyond, e.g., extraordinary.
hyper – means over or beyond, e.g., hyperactive.
in/im/ir/il – means not, e.g., indelible, immovable, irrelevant, illogical.
mal – means bad, e.g., malfunction.
mis – means not, badly or incorrect, e.g., miscommunication.
mono – means one, e.g., monorail.
non – means not, e.g., non-smoker.
poly – means many, e.g., polygamist.
post – means after, e.g., postpone.
pre – means before, e.g., precede.
pro – means for/in favour of, e.g., pro-life.
re – means again, e.g., rewind.
-ology – means the science of, e.g., geology.
-ship – means position of, e.g., friendship.
-wards – means direction of, e.g., skywards.
When a suffix is used or changed, it can change the part of speech of the word.
A suffix is something that is put after the word which changes its meaning or makes a new word. It is placed at the end of the word. If you can understand the meaning of the suffix, you can often work out the meaning of the word.
-able – means able to be, e.g., comfortable.
-ful – means full of, e.g., beautiful.
-hood – means the state of, e.g., motherhood.
-ish – means like, e.g., childish.
-less – means without, e.g., penniless.
Suffixes used to form nouns:
-age – courage
-ance – brilliance
-ence – obedience
-ary – dictionary
-ery – flattery
-ury – injury
-dom – kingdom
-ism – racism
-ist – strategist
-ity – charity
-ment – enjoyment
-our – humour
-sion – decision
-ssion – permission
-tion – punctuation
-ture – furniture
Suffixes used to form adjectives:
-al – vocal
-ial – partial
-ary – imaginary
-ed – deflated
-en – wooden
-ic – heroic
-ing – charming
-ly – friendly
-ous – courteous
-y – dusty
Suffixes used to form verbs:
-ate – simulate
-ed – simulated
-en – shorten