Deficiencies in the Articles of Confederation
- No separate executive branch to carry out the laws of Congress.
- No national judiciary to handle offenses against the central government’s laws or to settle disputes between states.
- Congress did not have the power to levy taxes.
- Congress could not regulate interstate and foreign commerce.
- The states as well as Congress had the power to coin money.
- Congress could not support an army or navy and was dependent on state militias.
- Nine states had to approve every law.
- Amendment of the Articles required unanimous consent.
|The Bill of Rights
|Freedom of religion, speech, the press, peaceable assembly, and petition
|The right to keep and bear arms
|Prohibits quartering of troops in citizens’ homes
|Protection against unreasonable searches and seizures
|Rules against taking of life, liberty, or property without due process of law
Protection against self-incrimination
|A person accused of a crime has a right to a defense lawyer, speedy and public trial, the right to hear charges, call witnesses, and be present when witnesses speak in court
|The right to trial by jury
|Protection against excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishments
|The rights enumerated in the Constitution are not a person’s only rights
|Powers not delegated to the U.S. nor prohibited to the states are reserved to the states or to the people
|Checks and Balances
|can veto laws
|can call special sessions of Congress
|controls enforcement of laws
|can pardon people convicted of federal crimes
|can impeach President and other high officials
|Senate approves Presidential appointments
|Senate approves treaties
|can override presidential vetoes
|exercises power of the purse
|can declare laws or presidential actions unconstitutional