Deficiencies in the Articles of Confederation
- No separate executive branch to carry out the laws of Congress.
- No national judiciary to handle offenses against the central government’s laws or to settle disputes between states.
- Congress did not have the power to levy taxes.
- Congress could not regulate interstate and foreign commerce.
- The states as well as Congress had the power to coin money.
- Congress could not support an army or navy and was dependent on state militias.
- Nine states had to approve every law.
- Amendment of the Articles required unanimous consent.
|The Bill of Rights|
|First Amendment||Freedom of religion, speech, the press, peaceable assembly, and petition|
|Second Amendment||The right to keep and bear arms|
|Third Amendment||Prohibits quartering of troops in citizens’ homes|
|Fourth Amendment||Protection against unreasonable searches and seizures|
|Fifth Amendment||Rules against taking of life, liberty, or property without due process of law
Protection against self-incrimination
|Sixth Amendment||A person accused of a crime has a right to a defense lawyer, speedy and public trial, the right to hear charges, call witnesses, and be present when witnesses speak in court|
|Seventh Amendment||The right to trial by jury|
|Eighth Amendment||Protection against excessive bail and cruel and unusual punishments|
|Ninth Amendment||The rights enumerated in the Constitution are not a person’s only rights|
|Tenth Amendment||Powers not delegated to the U.S. nor prohibited to the states are reserved to the states or to the people|
|Checks and Balances|
|Executive Branch||can veto laws|
|can call special sessions of Congress|
|controls enforcement of laws|
|can pardon people convicted of federal crimes|
|Legislative Branch||can impeach President and other high officials|
|Senate approves Presidential appointments|
|Senate approves treaties|
|can override presidential vetoes|
|exercises power of the purse|
|Judicial Branch||can declare laws or presidential actions unconstitutional|