Stephanitic: crown; four athletic festivals; Olympic Games, Nemean Games, Isthmain Games, Pythian Games
Stadion: one stadion= 600 ancient feet. (Gymnikos Agon- nude competition); modern equivalent- 200m sprint
Run knee high/ arm extended (only event from 776-724)
Victor gave his name for 4 year Olympiad (use Olympiads to reckon time)
Then Diaulos (400m was added to the Olympic program) Knees were lowered in this event
720BC- add Dolichos- long distance footrace; 7.5-9km in length. Knees low, arms close to sides.
Nemea: has the hippios (horsy) race. 800m. ONLY IN THIS GAME.
Last footrace to be added to the Olympic program (520): Hoplitodromos (race in armor) same length as diaulos (400m)- carried shields, wore helmets, brown skin guards, greaves.
Not sure of armour was standardized, always took place at the end. Diaulos and Hoplitodromos often had different athletic competitor; rarely did someone win both
Each game track has different “foot" lengths, no standardization [notime records were kept for comparison]
Runners starting position: hand out front, feet in Balbis (starting stone line- grooves) with a kampter (turning post) in front of him (standardized around 500BC)
Hoplitodromos also took a similar starting position (or 3 point to deal with shield)
PODA PARA PODA…APITE (foot by foot, Go!)
Also runners soon has their own lanes (marked with alphabetic letters
Hysplex I of Isthmia: triangular area is paved with stone. Starter at the back in a manhole, holds a rope for each runner’s starting gate and releases them simultaneously.
PROBLEM: more force was required by runners on the outside gates to release the rope, due to longer rope lengths; inner runners has an advantage
Hysplex II: used more widespread; instead used two large ropes (at either gate) to drop one big single barrier. Rope was torque to cause it to drop to the ground faster. But runners’ feet could become entangled in the rope.
Hyslpex III: must more complex system or spring, pulleys and large columns
This evolution showed the Greeks’ determination to create the most objective race starts as possible
The end of the track also has a balbis, which served as a finish lies near the Hellanodikaion (judge’s stand) for the stadion.
For the diaulos/ hoplitodromos they would round the Kampter (turning post) and return to the same stadion
Marathon, ancient basis is an illusion. The myth of the hemerodromos “day runner" who ran from Marathon to Athens to report a victory over the Persians. Never actually happened
Wrestling (Pale)- First even that was not a footrace to be added to the Olympic program. Changed from Orthe (upright, erect) to explain that you being standing, and throw opinion to the ground. There was no “pinning" in ancient wrestling: only in Pankration.
Systasis: “Standing together" position.
Meson echein (labein): Popular move. “to have/ grad the middle" in which the defensive person would be picked up and thrown to the ground
Trachelizein: neck hold, leverage was placed against the upper body; the defensive person was ankyrzein “to hook" (trip)
Hedran Stephein: Hip Throw
Wrestling took place on the skamma “dug-up place" (not standardized; shape/size unknown)
Kleroi: competitor’s draw cards (placed in pot, alphabetic cards drawn at random)
Ephedros: uneven amount of competitors (on the seat) and not competition
Anephedros: round winner (first to throw his opponent to the ground three times; winner is a triakter)
Akoniti victory: “dustless" win; victory without a fall
Boxers/ Wrestling would watch on for the events occurring
(Boxing) Pyx: introduced in 688; Thought to have been invited by the Spartans
Himantes: “gloves"; leather strip wrapped around the hands. Nickname: mymikes (ants); stung and left nicks/ abrasions
Soft Himas replaced by oxys, hard himas. Also featured wrist guards.
Romans used Caestus: boxing gloves laced with metal/ glass- one blow could be lethal
Korykos (punching bag); set up in special room (Korykeion)
Sparred with padded gloves/ shadow boxed and ear protectors (amphotidai)
Took place in a skamma, via drawing lots. No rounds/ time limits. Don’t hit a man when he is down
Boxers often signalled when they had enough; deaths did occur.
Pankration: most violent ancient athletic competition; combination of pale and pyx
Strangulation, bone breaking, limb twisting, and kicking (in the genitals) were all common. Biting and Gouging, Sharp jabbing were prohibited
Death could occurs and men often signalled they could not go on due to passing out, choking out, broken limbs
Pentathlon: single winner collect one prize for five competitions. Joined in 708.