America’s entrance:

  • German offensive at sea – open target on all Allied ships

Results in America’s anger, and a break in diplomatic relations

  • City of Memphis, Illinois – ships with passengers that was torpedoed
  • Lusitania – passenger ship that was also carrying munitions and other goods to Britain was targeted (sign that the neutral US was actually supporting the Allied cause)

April 6, 1917: US declares open war on Germany as a result of the attacks and lost American lives

  • 200,000 soldiers are sent
  • Weapons are outdated
  • Germany reacts with swift offensives knowing that they will soon be on the defensive

Russia’s departure: the Russian Revolution

WW1 had weakened an already fragile state (feudal system, outdated methods of production, the rich living off the poor, autocratic state)

  • Cities are weaker – soldiers needed, fewer men to work, food is re-routed to the front, not to the urban populations
  • 1916-1917: a harsh winter leads to food shortages and greater costs for everyday items
Kate Chopin: Biography & American Author

Tsar Nicholas takes personal command of the army and leaves for the Eastern Front, leaving his wife to deal with her personal advisor Rasputin (untrusted by the people)

  • March 8, 1917: Petrograd riots over food prices
  • March 12, 1917: Army abandons Tsar and mutinies (the Tsar begins to lose power)
  • March 13, 1917: Nicholas is forced to abdicate, held under house arrest by new Provisional Government (Alexander Kerensky)

Provisional Government maintains war effort despite public dissatisfaction

Vladimir Lenin – Socialist revolutionary in exile comes back to Russia for a full revolution and takeover by the workers of the state (with himself at the head)

  • Promises to end the war, redistribute land to peasants and give workers freedoms and rights
  • November 6, 1917: Winter Palace is stormed, Provisional Government is arrested, Lenin assumes power
The Provisional Government and its Downfall

By March 3, 1918, Russia has changed to the USSR – Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

  • Withdraws from the war – Treaty of Brest Litovsk
  • Loos of territory: Ukraine, Finland, Poland, Baltic States
  • Loss of resources: iron, coal

German troops go Westbound to the Western Front

The new Bolshevik government must contend with a crippled government, bad economy, food shortages, as well as a group of people who support change, but by non Bolshevik means – the Mensheviks

This leads to civil unrest – when all is finished, the Bolsheviks are in power, Lenin establishes a dictatorship and begins to rule with an iron fist


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2 years ago

what were the neutral powers